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The Industrial Revolution

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Presentation on theme: "The Industrial Revolution"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Industrial Revolution

2 The Invention Revolution 1800---41 patents were approved 1860----4357 patents were approved

3 Vocab Urban-cities (factories) Rural-country (farms)
Agriculture-farming Commerce-buying and selling of goods Textiles-Cloth Cash Crop-primary crop being sold Free Enterprise System-a type of economy in which people are free to buy, sell, and produce whatever they want


5 Anything new is quickly introduced here, including all of the latest inventions. There is no clinging to the old ways. The moment an American hears the word “invention”, their ears perk up. Friedrich List (German visitor)

6 Free Enterprise System
Property and business are owned by individuals The desire to make a profit motivates people Individuals, not the government, decide what to buy and what to manufacture and sell Competition encourages businesses to improve goods and services and to keep prices down The government protects private property and makes sure businesses operate fairly Bottom line: The people, not the government, are in control

7 Eli Whitney's Cotton gin
Allowed MUCH more cotton to be cleaned and processed daily Created an increased need for slaves and fieldworkers to process the cotton

8 Eli Whitney's Interchangeable Parts
Made production much easier, quicker, productive, and cheaper Often done by machine Contributed to the growth of mass production in manufacturing

9 John Deere and the Steel Plow
Made plowing much easier and faster

10 Cyrus McCormick's Mechanical Reaper
Greatly increased farm production

11 Samuel Morse’s Telegraph
Improved communication-reducing the time need for reflection and decision making

12 James Hargreaves’ Spinning Jenny
Spun thread into cloth

13 Elias Howe’s Sewing Machine
Allowed cloth to be made into clothes quickly

14 Samuel Slater---Father of the factory system
Mass production of textiles for making clothing and other goods using steam engines Increased demand for factory workers

15 Lowell Mills

16 Factory Working Conditions
Long hours Tedious tasks Dangerous Often used children

17 The Transportation Revolution
Transpiration improvements such as the canals and railroads supported industrial growth by reducing the cost of shipping items between the east and west and created a single national market between producers and consumers.

18 First turnpike 1790--Lancaster PA

19 Conestoga Covered Wagons

20 Erie Canal System Begun in 1817, completed in 1825

21 Principal canal routes---1840

22 Steamboat—Robert Fulton 1807

23 Clipper Ships

24 The Iron Horse 1830—13 Miles of track 1850—9000 miles of track

25 The Transcontinental Railroad
Connected the Eastern U.S. to the Western U.S. The majority of the Central Pacific workers were Chinese immigrants The majority of the Union Pacific workers were Irish immigrants

26 The Gadsden Purchase The U.S. purchased a strip of land from Mexico in 1853 in order to finish the Transcontinental Railroad

27 Northern Economy Factories, Mills, Textiles
The factory system brought workers and machines together under one roof Most were built near a water source to power the machines People left farms and crowded into cities Supported high tariffs

28 Southern Economy Agricultural (farming)
The cotton gin increased the need for cheap slave labor Before the cotton gin a worker could only clean about one pound of cotton per day. With the cotton gin one worker could now clean about 50 pounds of cotton per day Opposed high tariffs

29 Immigration Many Irish and German immigrants came to the United States in the mid-nineteenth century to escape a famine caused by a potato crop failure

30 Effects of the Industrial Revolution
People moving to the cities in the U.S. in the mid-1800s to find better paying jobs led to increased urbanization. The construction of roads, canals, and railroads also played a role in rapid industrialization and urbanization in the 19th century.

31 Effects of the Industrial Revolution
With many people in the north working in factories they became dependent on the south for food With the increase in demand for food the farmers in the south became dependent on the north for manufactured goods Created a working-class Inexpensive goods Child labor Economic growth

32 Effects Pollution Increase in slavery Labor unions
Improved transportation and communication Because of standardized parts and machine tools, fewer skills were needed of workers

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