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Announcements ●Exam II range ; mean 72

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Presentation on theme: "Announcements ●Exam II range ; mean 72"— Presentation transcript:

1 Announcements ●Exam II range 100-20; mean 72
●Abstracts and Lab Reports due Week 8 (May25 or 26) ●No MasteringBiology for today’s lecture 1

2 Hypothesis-Driven Science
As a formal process of inquiry, the scientific method consists of a series of steps. The key element of the scientific method is hypothesis-driven science. Observation Question Hypothesis Prediction Experiment Revise and repeat Figure UN1-4 2

3 Reporting the Results of Experiments
A scientific research report is a form of communication in which the investigator succinctly presents and interprets data collected in an investigation. How to Write.pdf Abstract Introduction Materials and Methods Results Discussion Literature Cited 3

4 Title Clearly states the nature of the study and includes:
*environmental factors that have been manipulated *response of the organism *specific organism used (in scientific notation) Not so good: A Biology Lab Report Good: The Effects of Light and Temperature on the Growth of the Bacterium Escherichia coli Also acceptable: Effects of Various Chemicals on the Growth of Escherichia coli 4

5 Title and general information:
The title accurately reflects the purpose, design & conclusions of the study. The paper is properly organized and easy to follow, with good flow and presentation of material. The information is presented in an objective manner. Are the group members names typed (not handwritten) on the cover sheet or front page? The paper DOES NOT include an abstract, which is a separate assignment TOTAL POINTS (Maximum of 5 points) 5

6 Format of the paper: Is the paper typed, with computer generated tables and figures? Does the paper use proper English, with correct punctuation and grammar? All sections are included: Introduction, Methods and Materials, Results, Discussion (no conclusion section is required, but may be included), & Literature cited? The paper does not contain typographical errors. TOTAL POINTS (Maximum of 4 points) 6

7 Introduction General background information relevant to the topic
Information specific to your hypothesis A short description of the hypothesis A description of how you proposed to test the hypothesis Predictions of expected supportive for falsifying results 7

8 Introduction The functional and/or biological significance of the topic is established. Background information relevant to the topic is included. Introduction contains at least 2 relevant literature sources. All of the references (2 required) relate to the research topic & significantly contribute to understanding the context of the research. If not, which reference(s) seems extraneous: Literature cited sources use the correct format. Hypothesis is clearly stated in the introduction. There is a clearly stated relationship between the background information and the hypothesis. The predictions of experimental results that support or falsify the hypothesis are included There are no quotations used in the introduction. TOTAL POINTS (Maximum of 9 points) 8

9 Materials and Methods Written in past tense
Do not use narrative format Declarative statements of how the experiment was conducted Summarize the information, do not list materials as is done for a cooking recipe 9

10 Materials and Methods A description of experiment; only declarative statements are used. The procedure is not given in a narrative format. The methodology is described in sufficient detail for others to repeat the study. The different treatments are summarized. The sample size is stated correctly (i.e. N = 10). The measured experimental conditions, required to be kept constant, are identified or described. The method of data recording is summarized without telling a story of how each student recorded the information. The method of how the treatments were compared is included at the end of this section. It is clear how the data will be analyzed and interpreted to either support or refutes the hypothesis (they clearly state that descriptive statistics were completed and a comparison of means graph was used to analyze the data). TOTAL POINTS (Maximum of 8 points) 10

11 Results ●Present data in straightforward manner with no analysis of the reasons the results occurred or the biological meaning of the data. ●Tables and Figures are often used (they must be accompanied by narrative text). Be sure to include: *A general introductory sentence which tells the reader what you did for this experiment. *A clear description of the results *Supporting figures (a graph and a table) 11

12 Results The text of the results section contains a description of how each treatment differed (or did not differ) from the other treatments, and quantifies the major findings of the experiment. A comparison of means graph and a table of descriptive statistics is included. These represent a summary of the data and results of the experiment; no raw data is included. The statistical significance of the comparisons of means graph is accurate and clearly stated in the results. The graph (i.e., figure) has both the x (independent) and y (dependent) axis correctly labeled. The graph and table(s) have the correct captions. (The table is captioned above, while the figure is captioned below). TOTAL POINTS (Maximum of 5 points) 12

13 •Tables and figures have two primary functions:
Results: Figures •Tables and figures have two primary functions: (1) Assist with analysis and interpretation of your results and (2) Enhance the clarity with which you present the work to a reader or viewer. Table 1. Effects of 4-Hour Exposure to 0.6 ppm Sulfur Dioxide on Average Seed and Pod Production in Soybeans. Treatment Number Seeds per Pod Pods per Plant Control 24 3.26 16 S02 1.96 13 13

14 Discussion ●Attempt to explain the meaning of the results and how the results relate to your problem or hypothesis posed in the introduction. Be sure to: *Summarize the results *Discuss how your results relate to another study *Discuss factors that might not have been accounted for in the experimental design *Not use a narrative format 14

15 Discussion The results are summarized but not given in full detail (i.e., the results section is not repeated in the discussion). The key conclusions are adequately supported by the experimental data. There is some discussion of how the results obtained in this experiment related to any other study conducted by another researcher in the scientific community (There is a minimum of 1 relevant literature source(s) that is compared/contrasted to the results of this study.). There is discussion of factors that might not have been accounted for in the experimental design and how these factors affected the results. Do the authors make suggestions as to how the results of their study could be extended in the future to learn more about the issue in question? No narrative format is used in the discussion text. The authors clearly state whether their results support or refute both their hypothesis and prediction given in the introduction. TOTAL POINTS (Maximum of 7 points) 15

16 Literature Cited Format
The cited sources must be appropriate authorities on the topic the citation is used to support. Therefore use of Encyclopedias, Children's books, popular news journals, popular magazines, or web site information from web pages other than the online reference service provided by the Walter W. Stiern Library) are not appropriate citation sources. The proper Science Citation format was used. The cited literature sources are in the proper format and are appropriate for the study. TOTAL POINTS (Maximum of 2 points) 16

17 Abstract ●An abstract, or summary, is published together with a research article, giving the reader a "preview" of what's to come. ●Your abstract should be one paragraph, of words, which summarizes the purpose, methods, results and conclusions of the paper. ●Don't use abbreviations or citations in the abstract. It should be able to stand alone without any footnotes. 17

18 Abstract This should be the last section written Summary of the report
Introductory statement: short description of the question investigated A short description of how the experiment was conducted A short description of the results A summary set of statements explaining the relevance of the results 18

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