2 Scientific research : Scientific Method Problem/Question Is studying or investigation phenomena or a problem scientifically using different methodsScientific MethodProblem/QuestionObservation/ResearchFormulate a HypothesisExperimentCollect and Analyze ResultsConclusionCommunicate the Results
3 Steps of the Scientific Method 1. Problem/Question: Develop a question or problem that can be solved through experimentation.
4 Steps of the Scientific Method 2. Observation/Research: Make observations and research your topic of interest.
6 Steps of the Scientific Method 3. Formulate a Hypothesis: Predict a possible answer to the problem or question.Example: If soil temperatures rise, then plant growth will increase.
7 HypothesisThe hypothesis is an educated guess about the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
8 Do you know the difference between the independent and dependent variables? Independent VariableDependent VariableThe independent, or manipulated variable, is a factor that’s intentionally varied by the experimenter.The dependent, or responding variable, is the factor that may change as a result of changes made in the independent variable.
9 Steps of the Scientific Method 4. Experiment: Develop and follow a procedure.Include a detailed materials list.The outcome must be measurable (quantifiable).
10 Control GroupIn a scientific experiment, the control is the group that serves as the standard of comparison.The control group may be a “no treatment" or an “experimenter selected” group.
11 Control Group All experiments should have a control group. The control group is exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group, except for the variable being tested.All experiments should have a control group.The constants in an experiment are all the factors that the experimenter attempts to keep the same
12 TrialsTrials refer to replicate groups that are exposed to the same conditions in an experiment.
13 Steps of the Scientific Method 5. Collect and Analyze Results: Modify the procedure if needed. Confirm the results by retesting. Include tables, graphs, and photographs.
14 Steps of the Scientific Method 6. Conclusion: Include a statement that accepts or rejects the hypothesis. Make recommendations for further study and possible improvements to the procedure.
15 Steps of the Scientific Method 7. Communicate the Results: Be prepared to present the project to an audience. Expect questions from the audience.
16 Graduation project 1- Acknowledgment 2- list of contents 3- List of Tables3 List of figures4. Abstract5- Introduction6- Aim of the work7- Review Of Literature8- Materials and Methods9- Results10- Discussion11- Conclusion12- References
17 Project Roles Font size : 16 for the titles 14 for the text 10 for the legendsFont type Times new RomanceNumber of pages 22-32Reference number 20-50YOUR PROJECT GUIDE WILL BE YOUR SUPERVISORE
18 COVER PAGE PROJECT NAME Graduation project Medical Laboratory DepartmentWritten byYOUR NAMEDepartment of Medical Laboratory SciencesCollege of Applied Medical SciencesSalman bin Abdulaziz UniversityForThe degree of B.Sc.Supervised byYOUR SUPERVISOR NAME AND POSTIONCOVER PAGE
19 AbstractThe Abstract is the description of your project as one paragraph, 250 word maximum. It has the following: Title , Background & Significance, Clear statement of the general question and the specific objectives ,Methods that will be used, explanation of how the methods will provide the data necessary to answer the question and finally Results and ConclusionsIntroduction State why you chose your particular project; tell why it is of interest or worthy of the attempt. State the explicit hypothesis (or hypotheses) that was (were) tested.
20 MaterialsGive a names and brand names of machines and solution been used during the project .Methods Give sufficient details of methods (including information on materials used) to allow someone to duplicate your work, especially with respect to those factors that may have had major effects on results. Note any special problems and how you overcame them (e.g., protein precipitated unless pH was buffered)
21 Table and Figure Legends Results Present a summary of your data. This is where you cite your figures and tables. Graphs will usually be most appropriate for showing your findings, but data summaries (do not reproduce all your data) may be tabular. Include any non-quantitative observations in the text. Describe the analysis of the data including any statistical tests performedTable and Figure LegendsEach table and figure should be cited in the text of your paper, and should be accompanied by an explanatory text legend. The legend should explain enough so that someone reading only the legend can fully understand your table or figure. Include the meaning of any abbreviations used.
22 Avoid plagiarism What is Plagiarism? Plagiarism is the use of someone else’s ideas or language as they were created by you regardless of where you find them in a book, on a webpage, in an . Whenever you include another person's information or wording in a document, you must acknowledge the source and include a citation that will tell your readers where you obtained it—otherwise you are guilty of plagiarism.Plagiarism is sometimes seen as intellectual theft-plagiarism.
23 quotation, paraphrase, and summary Quotation: A quotation must use the exact words of the source. If the quotation is relatively short (usually fewer than 3 lines or 40 words), those words must be enclosed in quotation marks. At the end of the thesis , there would be a bibliographical entry that would give the author, the title of the source, the publisher, date of publication, etc.Paraphrase: To paraphrase is to put the ideas in a passage into our own words, usually following the order in which the ideas were presented in the original. All major ideas are included. Usually a paraphrase is a bit shorter than the original, but when terms or concepts have to be defined, a paraphrase might actually be longer.Summary: A summary puts the major idea(s) of a passage into our own words and significantly shortens it. Once again, you must attribute the ideas to the original source.
24 Discussion Reference : State your conclusions. Was your null hypothesis rejected? How much confidence may one have in your results; how reliable are your results? Have additional questions been raised? Have you satisfied the objectives of your project? If you were to try to do the project again, would you do it differently?Reference :There are few reference styles has been recommended by most world universities for medical and health science such as Vancouver Style Guide for Vancouver Style