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An Introduction to Rhetoric: Using the Available Means

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1 An Introduction to Rhetoric: Using the Available Means
Chapter 1 The Language of Composition Created by: Stephanie Woit

2 Definition “the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion” ~ Aristotle

3 Key Elements of Rhetoric
context- the occasion or time and place of writing purpose- the goal that the speaker wants to achieve thesis/claim/assertion – clear focused statement (main idea) subject – topic speaker – the persona audience

4 “After analyzing relationship of speaker to subject, audience to speaker, and audience to subject the writer is ready to strategize. One way is to make appeals.” (4)

5 Ethos/ Pathos/Logos Ethos Logos Character
Speakers are trustworthy and credible Reputation is important The speakers expertise, knowledge, training and sincerity give a reason for listening Reason Clear main ideas, specific details, facts, and data Counterarguments- anticipate the other side or opposing views Concede when you have to Refute when necessary

6 Cont’d Pathos Emotion Appeals to the emotional perspective
Engages the emotions of the audience Figurative language and personal anecdotes If pathos is only used the argument is weak

7 Arrangement Arrangement is how a piece is organized
Writers structure their essays to their purpose and effect There will always be a beginning/middle/end The Classic Model Intro Narration Confirmation Refutation

8 The Classical Model Intro – introduces the reader to the subject
Narration- provides factual information and background material Confirmation- major part of the text/details Refutation- addresses the counterargument Conclusion – brings the essay to a satisfying close

9 Patterns of Development
Another way to consider arrangement is according to purpose . These patterns suggest a method of organization or arrangement. They include logical ways to organize an entire text. Narration Description Process Analysis Exemplification Comparison Contrast Classification and Division Definition Cause and Effect

10 Patterns of Development
Narration Description Refers to telling a story or recounting a series of events Based on personal experience or observation Chronology Concrete details Crafting a story that supports your thesis Includes specific details Emphasizes painting a picture Establishes mood or atmosphere Asking readers to see what you see and feel

11 Patterns of Development
Process Analysis Exemplification Explains how something works or how to do something The key here is clarity It must be logical and sequential Done in steps or stages Provides a series of examples-facts, specific cases or instances A series of examples are used to illustrate a point Examples leads to a general conclusion

12 Patterns of Development
Comparison and Contrast Classification and Division Juxtaposing two things to highlight their similarities and differences Used to analyze information carefully, which often reveals insight into the nature of what is being analyzed Organized subject by subject or point by point Answers the questions of what goes together and why Connections between things that might otherwise seem unrelated

13 Patterns of Development
Definition Cause of Effect Defining a term is often the first step in a debate or agreement Clarifies terms and defines Analyzes the causes that lead to a certain effect or, conversely, the effects that result from a cause is a powerful foundation for argument Since casual analysis depends upon crystal clear logic it is important to trace the train of cause and effect

14 What Happens when Rhetoric Misses the Mark?
Not every attempt at rhetoric hits the mark Sometimes the writer does not understand the audience Consider all the components and make sure to hit ‘em!

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