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AP Lang and Comp Ms. Bugasch November 5, 2013 “E” Day Goals 1.Finish political cartoon presentations
FFW Finish political cartoon presentations Discussion: What is arrangement?
Arrangement Arrangement is simply the organization of a speech or text to ensure that it achieves its purpose An essay has a clear beginning, middle, and end: introduction, developmental paragraphs, and conclusion How a writer structures the argument within that framework depends upon his or her intended purposes and effect
The Classical Model Classical rhetoricians divided a speech into six different parts: 1.Introduction (exordium) 2.Statement of Facts - Narration (narratio) 3.Division (partitio) 4.Proof - Confirmation (confirmatio) 5.Refutation (refutatio) 6.Conclusion (peroratio)
I. Introduction There are two aspects of an effective introduction: 1) introducing your topic and 2) establishing credibility. Introducing your topic. In your introduction, your main goal is to announce your subject or the purpose of your speech–to persuade, to teach, to praise, etc. Establishing credibility. During the introduction a rhetorician should use the persuasive appeal of ethos.
II. Statement of Facts The statement of facts is the background information needed to get your audience up to speed on the history of your issue. The goal is to provide enough information for your audience to understand the context of your argument. If your rhetoric is seeking to persuade people to adopt a certain course of action, you must first convince the audience that there really is a problem that needs to be addressed.
III. Division After stating your facts, the most effective way to transition into your argument is with a partitio: a summary of the arguments you’re about to make. Think of the division as your audience’s roadmap. You’re about to take them on a journey of logic and emotion, so give them an idea of where they’re going, so it’s easier to follow you. When I listen to a speech, I like when the speaker starts out by saying something like, “I have three points to make tonight.”
IV. Proof Now comes the main body of your speech or essay. This is when you will make your argument. In the proof section, you want to construct logical arguments that your audience can understand and follow. If you need to, review logos to ensure you’re using sound and valid arguments.logos When you construct your arguments, be sure to relate back to the facts you mentioned in your statement of facts to back up what you say. If you’re suggesting a course of action, you want to convince people that your solution is the best one for resolving the problem you just described.
V. Refutation After you’ve crafted a strong and convincing argument for your case, it’s time to highlight the weaknesses in your argument to your audience. This is where you want to present counterarguments Sharing the weaknesses of your arguments will actually make you more persuasive in two ways: 1. it gives you a chance to preemptively answer any counterarguments an opposing side may bring up and resolve any doubts your audience might be harboring. Bringing up weaknesses before your opponent or audience takes the bite out of a coming counterargument. 2. Highlighting the weaknesses in your argument is an effective use of ethos. No one likes a know-it-all.
VI. Conclusion The goal of your conclusion is to sum up your argument as forcefully and as memorably as possible. Simply restating your facts and proof won’t cut it. If you want people to remember what you said, you have to inject some emotion into your conclusion. In fact, The conclusion of a speech was when one should liberally use pathos–or the appeal to emotion.
Classical Model Example and Practice Read “Not by Math Alone” by Sandra Day O’Connor and Ray Romer Identify and label the six components of the classical model Discuss evidence