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--- Hephizibah Roskelly and David A. Jolliffee, Everyday Use

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1 --- Hephizibah Roskelly and David A. Jolliffee, Everyday Use
Rhetoric The art of analyzing all the language choices that a writer, speaker or reader might make in a given situation so that the text becomes meaningful, purposeful, and effective --- Hephizibah Roskelly and David A. Jolliffee, Everyday Use

2 The Rhetorical Triangle
The Author (Rhetor) creates a persona The Audience brings their knowledge, ideas, attitudes and beliefs The Subject is debatable and supported

3 Appeals to the Audience Aristotle aught that persuasion happens because a rhetor makes three kind of appeals to the audience through his/her text. Logos : by offering a clear, reasonable central idea (or set of ideas) and developing it with reasoning, examples or details Ethos: by offering evidence that s/he is credible, knowledgeable, and good person who has the audience’s best interest in mind. Pathos: by drawing on the emotions and interest of the audience so they will be sympathetically inclined to accept his or her ideas and arguments

4 Establishes a relationship with audience based on trust
Highlights the rhetor’s character and credentials Suggests that rhetor and audience share common values or beliefs Reveals that rhetor is a good, honest person Invokes credible testimony

5 How does the text affect you emotionally? What parts? Why?
Pathos How does the text affect you emotionally? What parts? Why? Emotions are immediate and sensory, and the audience will respond more readily While dramatic, they can be dangerous Aristotle said rhetors should understand the emotions, “to know their causes and the way in which they are excited.” Know thyself – and the audience

6 Logos: Logical Arguments
Examine the author’s Claim: Is it reasonable? Examine the author’s support Statistics, charts, graphs Factual evidence Support from authorities

7 Reasoning Inductive: from the specific to the general
Deductive: from the general to the specific

8 Inductive Reasoning Provides a number of examples (the specific) and draws a claim, in the form of a conclusion (generalization), from them. The audience is expected to accept the group of examples as adequate. Can you make the leap from the examples (the specific ) to the general conclusion

9 Deductive Reasoning If something is true of a class of things in general, this truth applies to all legitimate members of that class Syllogism 1. Every X has the characteristic Y. 2. This thing is X. 3. Therefore, this thing has the characteristic Y. Frogs are amphibians The coqui is a frog native to Peru The coqui is an amphibian

10 Context Rhetorical transactions always take place in a context – time, place, events and motivating forces – that influences how the rhetor understands, analyzes and generates the persona, the appeals and the subject matter material.

11 Purpose (aim, purpose) A rhetor’s intention is what he or she wants to happen as a result of the text, what he or she wants the audience to believe or do after hearing or reading the text. It may be announced at the beginning, it may develop, or it may be implied.

12 Patterns of Development: Arrangement of Argument according to Purpose
To compare and contrast? To narrate an event? To define a term? There are 8 logical ways to organize an entire text, or more likely, individual paragraphs

13 Organizational Strategies
Narration: telling a story or recounting events Description: using details that emphasize the senses Definition: exploring or defining the meaning of a term Exemplification: providing a series of examples Cause and effect: analyzing the causes that lead to an effect or the effects from a cause Comparison and contrast: juxtaposing two things to highlight their similarities and differences Process analysis: how something works or how to do something Classification: creating categories, breaking down into parts (Usually a combination)

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