2 Types of NonfictionInformational Nonfiction-used to convey information about a particular topic or subject.Narrative Nonfiction-a true story used to illustrate or explain a particular event or series of eventsBiography--account of a person’s life written by outside sourceAutobiography- account of a person’s life written by that person.
3 Types of NonfictionEssay- a short piece of writing that examines a topic of interestPersonal essay- writer’s response to an experienceFormal essay- objectively written (no opinion) to informSpeech- essay delivered orallyOther Functional Nonfiction: workplace documents, public documents, consumer documents, technical directions
4 Elements of Nonfiction Organization of Nonfiction:Chronological or Sequential Order: events detailed in the order in which they happenedCause and Effect –cause is why something happened. Effect is what happened. (Sometimes the effect is listed first.)Process Analysis (How to…)--
5 Elements of Nonfiction Order of Importance: details build from least important to most important or vice versa.Problem and Solution—tells about a problem (and sometimes says why there is a problem) then gives one or more possible solutionsCompare and Contrast—shows how two or more things are alike and different.Description: A topic, idea, person, place, or thing is described by listing its features, characteristics, or examplesLogical Order: supporting details arranged in groups so connections are clear.
6 Qualities of Nonfiction Main Idea- most important message of the nonfiction text and can be supported by details found within the text.Purpose: written to inform, persuade, express opinion, entertain etc.Logic: accurate reasoning supported by reasons, evidence and examplesUnity: all details support the main ideaCoherence: one idea flows from another in a way that makes it easy for readers to understand- transition words are used to connect ideas.
7 Strategies for Reading Nonfiction Main Idea and Supporting Details Determine the Main Idea: finding the main idea is the first necessary step in summarization. The main idea is the unifying idea of the paragraph or selection. What is the one idea that all of the sentences in a paragraph or all of the paragraphs in a selection are about?
8 Strategies for Reading Nonfiction Main Idea and Supporting Details Finding Supporting Details: details or statements that support the main idea.Types of supporting details:descriptive imagesexamples from historypersonal experiencereasonsfacts such as statisticsquotation from an expertan anecdote to illustrate a point
9 Strategies for Reading Nonfiction Summarize Summarize: summarizing is stating the main ideas of a selection in your own words and in a logical sequence.Ask yourself: what is the gist of the selection?Answer who, what, where, when, why, and how? Put that information in logical order.
10 Strategies for Reading Nonfiction Skimming Skim- skimming is used to quickly identify the main ideas of a text. Use skimming when you want to see if an article will be interesting or of use in your research. It helps to look at titles, subheadings and first lines.
11 Strategies for Reading Nonfiction Scanning Scan- scanning is glancing quickly over a selection in order to find specific information. As you move your eyes quickly over the lines of text, look for key words or phrases that will help you locate the information you’re looking for.
12 Strategies for Reading Nonfiction Set a Purpose Set a Purpose-begin with a question in mind. Setting a purpose helps you focus on what is most important when reading.
13 Strategies for Reading Nonfiction Identifying Bias Bias: is a subjective way of thinking that tells only one side of a story or provides significantly more information for just one side, intentionally placing more emphasis on one side of the argument.Possible sources of bias:Incomplete informationIntentional deceptionInfluence from past personal experienceIntentional persuasion-to strengthen a positionBias Rating:1 almost totally unbiased; highly objective; accurate2 mostly unbiased; fairly reliable3 somewhat biased; accuracy is questionable or details favor one opinion4 fairly biased; distorted; probably unreliable5 totally biased; highly subjective; inaccurate
14 Persuasive Strategies Authority: The writer includes expert testimony and opinion to support the position. Experts are those who are knowledgeable and recognized as experts by others in that same field.Pathos: when the writer seeks to illicit an emotional response from readers or audience. For example, when the reader feels emotionally connected to an anecdotal story that is used to support the topic.Logos: when the writer uses logic, including numbers, facts, and data to support the argument. (Logos appeals to your brain as opposed to pathos which appeals to your heart.)
15 Persuasive Strategies Ethos: The writer attempts to convince the reader that he or she is honest and intelligent, so readers should trust and believe them.Urgency: the writer makes the reader feel as if the issue needs immediate attention, and the reader should do something now.