Presentation on theme: "The Triumph of Parliament over Absolute Monarchs in England"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Triumph of Parliament over Absolute Monarchs in England vs
2 Queen Elizabeth QE I dies in 1603 – End of the Tudor Family Crown passes to her cousin, James VI of ScotlandSon of Mary Queen of Scots who was executed by Elizabeth’s order
3 James I Stuart Born Catholic, became a Protestant 1601-1625 Viewed as a “Foreign” King (Scottish)Strong believer in Divine Right / and AbsolutismParliament refused to raise funds for James I governmentPuritans disliked his religious policiesUnited England and Scotland as “Great Britain”
4 November 5 1604 – Gunpowder Plot (Guy Fawkes Day) Remember remember the fifth of November Gunpowder, treason and plot. I see no reason why gunpowder, treason Should ever be forgot...
5 Charles I Stuart Strong Anglican 1625-1649 Parliament forced Charles to sign the Petition of Right – which strengthened Parliament’s power to tax. Charles accepted and then did not call Parliament for 11 years.Charles married a Catholic.
6 Charles I - continuedWar with Scotland forced Charles to call Parliament (the Long Parliament). Charles tried to force Scots use the Anglican prayer bookCharles tried and convicted his enemies in a secret court called the Star ChamberThe Long Parliament tried to limit Charles’ power so he arrested five leaders of Parliament – CIVIL WAR! .
7 Civil War between Charles I and Cromwell’s Parliament (Cavaliers vs Civil War between Charles I and Cromwell’s Parliament (Cavaliers vs. Roundheads)
8 Royalists (Cavaliers) Parliamentarians (Roundheads) Civil War ( )Royalists (Cavaliers)Parliamentarians (Roundheads)House of LordsN & W EnglandAristocracyLarge landownersChurch officialsMore ruralHouse of CommonsS & E EnglandPuritansMerchantsTownspeopleMore urban
10 The Commonwealth: Oliver Cromwell 1649-1658 Puritan(Puritans were Protestants who believed in very strict rules and wanted to “purify” the church of all Catholic practices.)Leader of Parliament Army - (Roundheads)Captured, tried and executed Charles in 1649.
11 The Commonwealth: Oliver Cromwell 1649-1658 Kicked non-Puritans out of Parliament - the “Rump” ParliamentCromwell dissolved Parliament and started military dictatorship.Adopted strict rules for society - no singing, drinking, swearing, gambling, public gambling, plays, make-up for women, or Christmas celebrations
12 Charles II 1660-1685 (Stuart, secretly a Catholic) Parliament invited Charles II to returnCharles reopened the theaters and taverns, and was known as the “Merry Monarch”Charles accepted the Petition of RightAllowed religious tolerationHis brother James inherited the throne from him
13 James II 1685-1688 - Stuart, Catholic! Allowed Catholics to take positions in government and as officers in the army (violation of the Test Act.)Had a son with his Catholic wife.
14 The GLORIOUS REVOLUTION: William III and Mary II 1689-1702 – Protestants Mary was James II Protestant Daughter who was married to William of Orange (Dutch).Parliament offered them the crown in return they:Accepted the English Bill of Rights which ensured the superiority of Parliament, required the King to summon Parliament regularly, forbid the King from interfering with the work of Parliament.
15 William III and Mary II 1689-1702 – Protestants The Bill of Rights also established and restated individual rights such as: trial by jury, habeas corpus, religious freedom (except Catholics).Beginning of a limited, or constitutional, monarch in England