Oxygen (65%) Carbon (18%) Hydrogen (10%) Nitrogen (3.5%) Calcium (1.5%) Phosphorus (1.0%) Potassium (0.35%) Sulfur (0.25%) Sodium (0.15%) Magnesium (0.05%) Copper, Zinc, Selenium, Molybdenum, Fluorine, Chlorine, Iodine, Manganese, Cobalt, Iron (0.70%) Lithium, Strontium, Aluminum, Silicon, Lead, Vanadium, Arsenic, Bromine (trace amounts) What are the elements that make up you? The top 4
The top 4 on the list make up about 96-97% of living things. There are 4 Molecules that make up living things that contain the top 4 elements. You and all living things are made up of these 4 molecules
First we have to learn about some terms that we will be using. The prefix poly means many The prefix mono means one
Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids Are big, huge molecules made up of many sub units.
The sub units are called monomers A small unit that can be put together to make a bigger molecule We call the big molecules polymers Made up of many smaller units
Carbohydrates Sugars Starches This is a monosaccharide it is called a simple sugar because it is 1 sugar molecule. Plants take carbon dioxide and water, rearrange the atoms and make a monosaccharide called glucose. Mitochondria take apart monosaccharides to get the energy to make ATP. This is a disaccharide because it is made of two monosaccharides. Di means 2 Table sugar is this kind of molecule
Complex carbohydrates are made of many, many monosaccharides They are called starches Sugars and starches are used for Energy
Lipids Fats Oils Waxes Fats are solids at room temperature Oils are liquids at room temperature Waxes are solids at room temperature
Living things use lipids for: Structure Lipids make up cell membranes Phospholipid bilayer Energy storage Fat is long-term energy and carbon storage it has twice the amount of energy as glucose Monomers of lipids are a glycerol and 3 fatty acids
Proteins Structure Cells structures are made of proteins Hair and nails are made of proteins Controls cell functions Enzymes and hormones act as messengers They control cell functions Proteins monomers are amino acids. Proteins are long chains of amino acids that are folded into a certain shape like the picture above.
Nucleic Acids DNA and RNA The monomers of nucleic acids are nucleotides. Heredity Function in making proteins