Presentation on theme: "Carbon atoms have unique bonding properties. Carbon forms _______________ bonds with up to four other atoms, including other carbon atoms. Carbon-based."— Presentation transcript:
Carbon atoms have unique bonding properties. Carbon forms _______________ bonds with up to four other atoms, including other carbon atoms. Carbon-based molecules have three general types of structures. –_______________ chain –_______________
Many carbon-based molecules are made of many small subunits bonded together. –_______________ are the individual subunits. – _______________ are made of many monomers.
Four main types of carbon-based molecules are found in living things. _______________________ are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Four main types of carbon-based molecules are found in living things. Carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. –Carbohydrates include sugars and starches. –Monosaccharides are _______________ sugars. –Polysaccharides include starches, cellulose, and glycogen. ________ __________
Carbohydrates can be broken down to provide _______________ _______________. Some carbohydrates are part of cell structure. Polymer (_______________ ) Starch is a polymer of glucose monomers that often has a branched structure. Found in plants Polymer (_______________ ) Cellulose is a polymer of glucose monomers that has a straight, rigid structure Found in plant cell walls monomer
–Many contain carbon chains called fatty acids. –Fats and oils contain fatty acids bonded to glycerol. Lipids are nonpolar molecules that include _______________, _______________, and _______________. Triglyceride Lipids have several different functions: –broken down as a source of _______________ energy –make up cell _______________ – used to make _______________
Fats and oils have different types of fatty acids. –_______________ fatty acids
Phospholipids make up all cell membranes. –_______________ phosphate “head” –_______________ fatty acid “tails” Phospholipid
– Amino acids are linked by _______________ bonds. Proteins are polymers of amino acid monomers. –Amino acids differ in remainder groups, or ____ groups. –_______________ different amino acids are used to build proteins in organisms.
Proteins differ in the number and order of amino acids. –Amino acids _______________ to give a protein its shape. –Incorrect amino acids change a protein’s _______________ and _______________. hydrogen bond Hemoglobin
Nucleic acids are polymers of monomers called nucleotides. A phosphate group nitrogen-containing molecule, called a base deoxyribose (sugar) _______________ are made of a sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogen base.
– DNA stores genetic _______________ Nucleic acids are polymers of monomers called nucleotides. –Nucleotides are made of a sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogen base. –RNA builds _______________. DNA RNA