3 What is Cancer?Cancer - disease where cells grow out of control and invade, erode and destroy normal tissueCancer cells lack differentiation (not specialized)Normal cells enter the cell cycle only about 50 times; cancer cells can enter the cell cycle repeatedly.Normal cells undergo Apoptosis which is a programmed cell death to prevent overgrowth of cells.
4 Cancer Development Abnormal cell growth called neoplasm Abnormal growth results from the mutation of genes that regulate the cell cycleCarcinogenesis, the development of cancer is gradual—it may take decades before a cell has the characteristics of a cancer cell.
5 Origin of CancerMutations in genes for repair enzymes of DNA can cause cancer.If proteins that start cell cycle or inhibit cell cycle are changed (mutated) it can cause cancer.Normal DNA segments have ends that shorten with each replication, eventually signaling the cell to end division; cancer cells have enzymes that keep their DNA segments at a constant length and thus the cells to continue dividing.
7 Characteristics of Cancer Cells Have abnormal nucleiLack differentiationChromosomes mutated; may be duplicated or deleted.Gene amplification, extra copies of genesDo not undergo apoptosis
8 Characteristics cont. Do not have contact inhibition Normal cells are anchored and stop dividing when in contact with other cells;Growth not inhibited and will invade and destroy normal tissueCancer cells pile on top of each other to form a tumor.Cancer cells undergo metastasis and angiogenesisMetastasis – cancer spreads throughout body; new tumors away from primary tumor.Angiogenesis - formation of new blood vessels to bring nutrients and oxygen to tumor.
9 Types of TumorsBenign: slow growth, non-invasive, no metastasis (not cancerous)Malignant: rapid growth, invasive, potential for metastasis (cancerous)
11 Deadliest 10 Lung and bronchial – 792,495 Colon and rectal - 268,783 Breast Cancer - 206,983Pancreatic Cancer – 162,878Prostate Cancer – 144,926Leukemia – 108,740Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma – 104,407Liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer – 79,773Ovarian Cancer – 73,638Esophageal Cancer – 66,659
14 PrognosisDepends on whether the tumor has invaded surrounding tissue, whether there is lymph node involvement, and whether there are metastatic tumors elsewhere in the body.Depends on what type of cancer and how early was detected.For example some forms of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma rarely ever causes death, while 77% of skin cancer deaths are caused by melanoma.
15 Is cancer a heritable disease? There are heritable cancer syndromes but a majority are not.Cancer is a genetic disease, but the majority of mutations that lead to cancer are somatic (body cell)
16 What causes the mutations that lead to cancer? Viruses: HPV --> cervical cancerBacteria: H. pylori --> gastric cancerChemicals --> B[a]P --> lung cancerUV and ionizing radiation --> skin cancerWhat do these agents have in common? They are all Mutagens
17 Treatments Surgery Chemotherapy Radiation Therapy Targeted Therapy ImmunotherapyHyperhermiaBone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell TransplantLaser TherapyMolecular Targeted Therapy
18 7 ways to Reduce Risk Don’t use tobacoco Eat healthy diet – fruits, veggies, limit alcoholMaintain healthy weight; physical activityProtect yourself from the sunGet immunized – Hepatitis B and HPVAvoid Risky behaviors – safe sex and no shared needlesTake early detection seriouslySelf examsRegular doctor visits