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By: Ashleen Atchue and Mario Tovar

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1 By: Ashleen Atchue and Mario Tovar
Lung Cancer By: Ashleen Atchue and Mario Tovar

2 Cancer Basic’s Cancer is the name given for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and are able to invade other tissues. Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body through various forms such as the blood and lymph systems.

3 Cancer Basic’s Cont. Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start - for example, cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer; cancer that begins in melanocytes of the skin is called melanoma.

4 Origins of Cancer Cancer begins from life's most basic unit of life the cell. Sometimes however the process goes wrong and the genetic material or DNA becomes changed producing mutations that can affect cell growth and division. Cells may suffer complications such as not dying when they should and producing “surpluses” of cells which ultimately develop into a mass of tissue or also known as a tumor.


6 A closer look at tumors benign tumors
Are not cancerous Can often be removed Are not very likely to come back Cells from benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body

7 A closer look at tumors cont. malignant tumors
Are cancerous Can invade nearby tissues Removal varies on locations The spread of from one part of the body is called metastasis

8 Top types of cancer in the u.s.
1. Skin cancer 2. Lung cancer 3. Breast cancer 4. Prostate cancer 5. Colorectal cancer 6. Kidney (renal) cancer 7. Bladder cancer 8. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma 9. Thyroid cancer 10. Endometrial cancer

9 Lung cancer Lung cancer as clearly stated begins in the lungs
Once it starts in the lungs it can spread to the nose, down your windpipe (trachea), as well as the bronchi. There are two main types of cancer Non-small cell cancer Small cell lung cancer

10 Causes and risk factors
Lung cancer is the deadliest type of cancer for both men and women with more deaths then breast, colon, and prostate cancer combined Rare in people under 45 Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer Specific risk factors include Radiation therapy to the lungs Radon gas Family history Asbestos Exposure to cancer causing chemicals (uranium, beryllium, vinyl chloride, and nickel chromates) High levels of air pollution High levels of arsenic in drinking water

11 Symptoms Beginning stages of lung cancer have almost no symptoms
Chest pain Cough (that doesn’t go away) Coughing up blood Fatigue Weight loss without trying Wheezing Shortness of breath Loss of appetite

12 Symptoms Cont. Often occur in the later stages these include
Bone pain or tenderness Eyelid drooping Facial paralysis Hoarseness or voice change Joint pain Swallowing difficulty Shoulder pain Weakness

13 Signs and tests Lung cancer is often confirmed and diagnosed through either a x-ray or CT Non-small cell lung cancer is often confirmed through Bone san Chest x-ray CBC CT scan PET scan Sputum test Thoracentesis

14 Signs and tests Cont. Small cell lung cancer Liver function tests MRI
Sputum test (cytology, looking for cancer cells)

15 Treatment non-small cell cancer
Treatment for this form that has not spread to nearby lymph nodes includes Lobectomy Wedge or segment removal Pneumonectomy Chemotherapy Is used alone often when the cancer has spread outside the lung (stage IV) Also commonly given before surgery or radiation to make those treatments more effective also none as neoadjuvant therapy

16 Treatment Cont. non-small cell cancer
Radiation Can be used coupled with chemotherapy if surgery is not a option Alleviation of symptoms caused by cancer, such as swelling and breathing problems The following treatments are used to relieve symptoms alone - Photodynamic therapy uses a light to activate a inserted drug in specific areas of the body Laser therapy which uses a small beam of light burns and kills cancer cells

17 Treatment small cell cancer
Options for treatment are much more aggressive Chemotherapy (taken by mouth or injected) Combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy is given to advanced stages of small cell lung cancer that has spread to other areas of the body

18 Top cancer killers 1. Lung and bronchial cancer: 792,495 lives
2. Colon and rectal cancer: 268,783 lives 3. Breast cancer: 206,983 lives 4. Pancreatic cancer: 162,878 lives 5. Prostate cancer: 144,926 lives 6. Leukemia: 108,740 lives 7. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma: 104,407 lives 8. Liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer: 79,773 lives 9. Ovarian cancer: 73,638 lives 10. Esophageal cancer: 66,659 lives

19 Stages of non-small cell cancer
Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are assigned a stage from I to IV in order of severity. In stage I, the cancer is confined to the lung.

20 Stages of non-small cell cancer
In stages II and III, the cancer is confined to the lung and, possibly, the lymph nodes.

21 Stages of non-small cell cancer
Stage IV cancer has spread outside of the lung to other parts of the body.

22 Stages of small cell cancer
Limited stage (LS) SCLC refers to cancer that is confined to its area of origin in the lung and lymph nodes

23 Stages of non-small cell cancer
In extensive-stage (ES) SCLC, the cancer has spread beyond the lung to other parts of the body.

24 Top 5 ways of reducing a lung cancer incidence
1. STOP smoking NOW 2. Fruits and Vegetables 3. Test your home for Radon 4. Workplace exposure 5. Passive smoking AVOID IT

25 You tube R=1

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