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Your “Do Now” 3/19 Take a paper from up front

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Presentation on theme: "Your “Do Now” 3/19 Take a paper from up front"— Presentation transcript:

1 Your “Do Now” 3/19 Take a paper from up front
Complete the “Before” section, questions 1-5 Be prepared to share-out

2 Learning Target I can explain how cancer affects an organism and how cancer can be caused.

3 Notes #4 Cancer Cancer

4 Cancer: disease where cells grow and divide uncontrollably fast
It can affect almost any part of the body This happens when the genes that regulate the cell cycle mutate After one of these genes has mutated to cause cancer we call it an oncogene

5 Cancer cells are no longer differentiated (no special function)
Normal cells are programmed to stop growing in number but cancer cells DO NOT. Instead, they form a tumor (an abnormal clump of tissue)

6 Loss of Normal Growth Control
National Cancer Institute Understanding Cancer and Related Topics Understanding Cancer Normal cell division Cell Suicide or Apoptosis Cell damage— no repair Cancer cell division Cancer arises from a loss of normal growth control. In normal tissues, the rates of new cell growth and old cell death are kept in balance. In cancer, this balance is disrupted. This disruption can result from uncontrolled cell growth or loss of a cell’s ability to undergo cell suicide by a process called“apoptosis.” Apoptosis, or “cell suicide,” is the mechanism by which old or damaged cells normally self-destruct. First mutation Second mutation Third mutation Fourth or later mutation Uncontrolled growth NCI Web site:

7 Two types of tumors Benign: tumor that stays in one area
Malignant: tumor that can spread into other areas

8 Malignant versus Benign Tumors
National Cancer Institute Understanding Cancer and Related Topics Understanding Cancer Malignant (cancer) cells invade neighboring tissues, enter blood vessels, and move to different sites Benign (not cancer) tumor cells grow only in one area Depending on whether or not they can spread by invasion and metastasis, tumors are classified as being either benign or malignant. Benign tumors are tumors that cannot spread by invasion or metastasis; hence, they only grow locally. Malignant tumors are tumors that are capable of spreading by invasion and metastasis. By definition, the term “cancer” applies only to malignant tumors. Time NCI Web site:

9 Metastasis: process of cancer cells spreading from one area to another
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

10 Cancer in People

11 What types of cancer have we heard of?

12 Leading Sites of New Cancer Cases and Deaths, 2008 Estimates
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

13 4 Common Killers Lung Cancer Breast Cancer Prostate Cancer (Men only)
Ovarian Cancer (Women only)

14 Different Kinds of Cancer
National Cancer Institute Understanding Cancer and Related Topics Understanding Cancer Different Kinds of Cancer Leukemias: Bloodstream Carcinomas: Lung Breast (women) Colon Bladder Prostate (men) Lymphomas: Lymph nodes Cancer can originate almost anywhere in the body. Carcinomas, the most common types of cancer, arise from the cells that cover external and internal body surfaces. Lung, breast, and colon are the most frequent cancers of this type in the United States. Sarcomas are cancers arising from cells found in the supporting tissues of the body such as bone, cartilage, fat, connective tissue, and muscle. Lymphomas are cancers that arise in the lymph nodes and tissues of the body’s immune system. Leukemias are cancers of the immature blood cells that grow in the bone marrow and tend to accumulate in large numbers in the bloodstream. Sarcomas: Fat Bone Muscle NCI Web site:

15 Stages of cancer Stage Definition Stage 0
Cancer in one particular spot Stage I, Stage II, and Stage III Higher numbers indicate more extensive disease: Larger tumor size and/or spread of the cancer beyond the organ in which it first developed to nearby lymph nodes and/or organs adjacent to the location of the primary tumor. Stage IV The cancer has spread to another organ(s).

16 Why is cancer deadly? Cancer cells take-up nutrients & space
As tumors grow they become harder to destroy as they affect more cells faster Tumors can crowd-out and destroy critical organs

17 Cancer Death Rates, by Race and Ethnicity, United States, 2000–2004
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 17

18 How do people get cancer?
Carcinogen: something that causes cancer

19 Carcinogen Examples Radiation – X Rays, UV light
Chemicals – tar from cigarettes Virus – HPV can cause cervical cancer. Genetics– Some families are more likely to get certain cancers. Remember you can’t inherit cancer its just that you can be more likely to get it

20 Table 13.3

21 Detecting Cancer Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Computerized Axial Tomography scanning (CAT scan) Ultrasound Self-exam and check-ups MRI for breast exam

22 Cancer Treatments Radiotherapy: Using radiation to destroy tumors
Chemotherapy: Using a drug to destroy cancerous tissues Stem cells: Cancerous tissues destroyed, then replaced with stem cells Chemotherapy Cyberknife

23 Preventing cancer Healthy Diet Regular Exercise Drink Water
Eating foods with antioxidants (fight cancer) Eat brightly-colored veggies & fruits (good immune system chemicals) Low saturated fat (prevent cancer) Regular Exercise Drink Water Avoid carcinogens!

24 Current Cancer research
Finding causes Finding prevention & treatment strategies Stem-cell use Gene therapy

25 Some myths & facts from the Mayo Clinic
Myth: If we can put a man on the moon, we should have a cure for cancer by now. Truth: Finding the cure for cancer is proving to be more complex than mastering the engineering and physics required for spaceflight.

26 Myth: Regular checkups and today's medical technology can detect all cancer early.
Truth: Although regular medical care can indeed increase your ability to detect cancer early, it can't guarantee it. Cancer is a complicated disease, and there's no sure way to always spot it.

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