4 Cancer: disease where cells grow and divide uncontrollably fast It can affect almost any part of the bodyThis happens when the genes that regulate the cell cycle mutateAfter one of these genes has mutated to cause cancer we call it an oncogene
5 Cancer cells are no longer differentiated (no special function) Normal cells are programmed to stop growing in number but cancer cells DO NOT.Instead, they form a tumor (an abnormal clump of tissue)
6 Loss of Normal Growth Control National Cancer InstituteUnderstanding Cancer and Related TopicsUnderstanding CancerNormal cell divisionCell Suicide or ApoptosisCell damage— no repairCancer cell divisionCancer arises from a loss of normal growth control. In normal tissues, the rates of new cell growth and old cell death are kept in balance. In cancer, this balance is disrupted. This disruption can result from uncontrolled cell growth or loss of a cell’s ability to undergo cell suicide by a process called“apoptosis.” Apoptosis, or “cell suicide,” is the mechanism by which old or damaged cells normally self-destruct.First mutationSecond mutationThird mutationFourth or later mutationUncontrolled growthNCI Web site:
7 Two types of tumors Benign: tumor that stays in one area Malignant: tumor that can spread into other areas
8 Malignant versus Benign Tumors National Cancer InstituteUnderstanding Cancer and Related TopicsUnderstanding CancerMalignant (cancer) cells invade neighboring tissues, enter blood vessels, and move to different sitesBenign (not cancer) tumor cells grow only in one areaDepending on whether or not they can spread by invasion and metastasis, tumors are classified as being either benign or malignant. Benign tumors are tumors that cannot spread by invasion or metastasis; hence, they only grow locally. Malignant tumors are tumors that are capable of spreading by invasion and metastasis. By definition, the term “cancer” applies only to malignant tumors.TimeNCI Web site:
13 4 Common Killers Lung Cancer Breast Cancer Prostate Cancer (Men only) Ovarian Cancer (Women only)
14 Different Kinds of Cancer National Cancer InstituteUnderstanding Cancer and Related TopicsUnderstanding CancerDifferent Kinds of CancerLeukemias:BloodstreamCarcinomas:LungBreast (women)ColonBladderProstate (men)Lymphomas:Lymph nodesCancer can originate almost anywhere in the body.Carcinomas, the most common types of cancer, arise from the cells that cover external and internal body surfaces. Lung, breast, and colon are the most frequent cancers of this type in the United States.Sarcomas are cancers arising from cells found in the supporting tissues of the body such as bone, cartilage, fat, connective tissue, and muscle.Lymphomas are cancers that arise in the lymph nodes and tissues of the body’s immune system.Leukemias are cancers of the immature blood cells that grow in the bone marrow and tend to accumulate in large numbers in the bloodstream.Sarcomas:FatBoneMuscleNCI Web site:
15 Stages of cancer Stage Definition Stage 0 Cancer in one particular spotStage I, Stage II, and Stage IIIHigher numbers indicate more extensive disease: Larger tumor size and/or spread of the cancer beyond the organ in which it first developed to nearby lymph nodes and/or organs adjacent to the location of the primary tumor.Stage IVThe cancer has spread to another organ(s).
16 Why is cancer deadly? Cancer cells take-up nutrients & space As tumors grow they become harder to destroy as they affect more cells fasterTumors can crowd-out and destroy critical organs
18 How do people get cancer? Carcinogen: something that causes cancer
19 Carcinogen Examples Radiation – X Rays, UV light Chemicals – tar from cigarettesVirus – HPV can cause cervical cancer.Genetics– Some families are more likely to get certain cancers.Remember you can’t inherit cancer its just that you can be more likely to get it
21 Detecting Cancer Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Computerized Axial Tomography scanning (CAT scan)UltrasoundSelf-exam and check-upsMRI for breast exam
22 Cancer Treatments Radiotherapy: Using radiation to destroy tumors Chemotherapy: Using a drug to destroy cancerous tissuesStem cells: Cancerous tissues destroyed, then replaced with stem cellsChemotherapyCyberknife
23 Preventing cancer Healthy Diet Regular Exercise Drink Water Eating foods with antioxidants (fight cancer)Eat brightly-colored veggies & fruits (good immune system chemicals)Low saturated fat (prevent cancer)Regular ExerciseDrink WaterAvoid carcinogens!
24 Current Cancer research Finding causesFinding prevention & treatment strategiesStem-cell useGene therapy
25 Some myths & facts from the Mayo Clinic Myth: If we can put a man on the moon, we should have a cure for cancer by now.Truth: Finding the cure for cancer is proving to be more complex than mastering the engineering and physics required for spaceflight.
26 Myth: Regular checkups and today's medical technology can detect all cancer early. Truth: Although regular medical care can indeed increase your ability to detect cancer early, it can't guarantee it. Cancer is a complicated disease, and there's no sure way to always spot it.