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Cancer “Mitosis Gone Wild”.

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Presentation on theme: "Cancer “Mitosis Gone Wild”."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cancer “Mitosis Gone Wild”

2 What is Cancer? Uncontrolled cellular division of abnormal cells
Caused by the genetic code in the cell’s DNA Crowds out the healthy cells and can start to spread to other parts of the body – METASTASIZE Hundreds of different varieties

3 Cancer Cell Growth Occurs in any part of an animal or plant where cells are growing and dividing CONTACT INHIBITION Normal cells form one layer. Replication or cell division stops upon contact with neighboring cells Cancer cells DO NOT have contact inhibition, so they “pile up” on each other forming tumors or “clumped cells”

4 Tumors BENIGN MALIGNANT No serious health problems Grow slowly
Non-invasive Are NOT carried by blood Easily removable NOT considered Cancer MALIGNANT Very serious health problems Rapid growth Invasive – pushes into surrounding normal tissue Can be carried by blood or lymph to other areas of the body = METASTASIS Not as easy to remove Cancer!

5 What causes cancer? Everyone has pre-cancerous cells
Continual irritation of these pre-cancerous cells triggers the development of cancer More than 80% of cancers are caused by exposure to CARCINOGENS (substances that promote the development of cancer) Chemicals Radiation (x-rays, UV light) Viruses (herpes simplex 1 & 2 linked to cervical cancer)

6 Stages of Cancer Describes how far cancer has spread
Stage I – small, localized, usually curable Stage II – larger tumor, lymph may be affected Stage III – even larger tumor, lymph affected Stage IV – usually inoperable, metastasis

7 Stages of Cancer - TNM TNM Staging – more precise system
T = Tumor (T0-T4 depends on size, invasiveness) N = Nodes (N0-N4 indicates lymph involvement) M = Metastasis (M0 or M1) Examples: T1N1M0 T3N4M1

8 Types of Cancer Carcinomas – epithelial cells (skin or tissue lining) *Most cancers – breast, stomach, lung, prostate, colon Melanoma – pigment producing cells (moles) Lymphomas – lymphatic tissue Sarcoma – bone, muscle, fat, connective tissue *Rare (~2% of cancers) Leukemia – blood/bone marrow

9 Skin Cancer – Melanoma

10 Treatments Surgery – removal of a localized tumor
Number 1 option Can stop cancer from spreading Usually followed by radiation or chemotherapy Radiation – damages cancer cells (but also damages surrounding healthy cells) Chemotherapy – strong doses of chemicals are used to kill cancerous cells Given orally or through injections

11 Treatments Immunotherapy
Kill cancer cells by using chemicals such as interferon (naturally occurring in our body) to help stimulate our immune system to fight Vaccine – also used to stimulate immune system

12 Treatments Hormone Treatment Bone Marrow Transplant Alternative
Reduces the amount of hormones produced in the body which can decrease the rate at which cancer can spread (breast, prostate, uterine) Bone Marrow Transplant Replace bone marrow to begin new production of red blood cells Alternative Diet Acupuncture (for minimizing pain, post operative swelling, vomiting from chemo) Hyperthermia – heat to destroy cancer cells

13 Prevention of Cancer Major Risk Factors Smoking Tobacco UV exposure
1/3 of ALL cancer deaths in US caused by tobacco smoke UV exposure Diet & Lack of Exercise overconsumption of alcohol, fat, and foods that have been smoked, cured, pickled, or charred Lack of dietary fiber or antioxidant vitamins and minerals Radiation (x-rays, radioactive substances) CARCINOGENS – chemicals that increase cancer risk (asbestos, uranium, radon, cadmium)

14 Are you at risk? Everyone's cancer risk profile is complex and unique – genetics, environment, and lifestyle choices all factor in to your chance of developing cancer!

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