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The Geography of Africa.

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Presentation on theme: "The Geography of Africa."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Geography of Africa

2 The continent of Africa contains more independent nations (54) than any other continent.

3 M I L E S M I L E S Africa is the second largest continent  11,700,000 sq. mi. 10% of the world’s population lives in Africa. It is 3 times the size of the U. S.

4 REGIONS North Africa East Africa Central Africa West Africa
South Africa

5 Using sea and land routes, migrating people, traders and conquerors spread ideas, religious traditions, inventions and achievements in Europe, Asia and Africa. The movement of customs or ideas from one place to another is called : CULTURAL DIFFUSION. Mediterranean Sea Red Sea Indian Ocean Atlantic Ocean

6 Nile River Congo River Zambezi River Niger River Orange River Limpopo River Mediterranean Sea Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Red Sea L. Victoria L. Albert--> L. Chad--> L. Tanganyika-> <--Gulf of Aden Bodies Of Water Rivers in Africa provide fish for food; water for irrigation; transportation routes; hydroelectric power (energy produced by moving water); and, are a source of precious metals. Indian Ocean

7 BASIN A basin is the entire geographical area drained by a river and its tributaries. Amazon River Basin

8 Nile River The Nile is the world’s longest river at 4,160 miles.
The Nile flows NORTH. The source (start) of the Nile is at Lake Victoria.

9 Aswan Dam In 1970 Egypt built the Aswan Dam for Hydroelectric power
Aswan Dam In 1970 Egypt built the Aswan Dam for Hydroelectric power. The Dam also created a lake that stores water for irrigation. However the dam traps rich silt that was beneficial for Egyptian soil. As a result, Egyptian farmers must now buy and use fertilizers for crops.

10 The Congo River Produces hydroelectric power.
Has many waterfalls and rapids preventing boats from traveling the entire river. 2,922 miles long Africa's most powerful river and the second most voluminous river in the world with a discharge of 1,500,000 cubic feet of water per second. It is the fifth longest river in the world, draining a basin of nearly 1.5 million square miles The Congo River Basin covers the area (forested and non-forested) drained by the Congo River.

11 The Niger River Basin Covers 7.5% of the continent.
Extends over 10 countries. 2,600 miles long. Used for irrigation and transport

12 The Zambezi River

13 Mountains & Peaks Atlas Mts. Δ Mt. Kenya Δ Mt. Kilimanjaro
Ruwenzori Mts. Drakensburg Mts.

14 Atlas Mts. جبال الأطلس‎

15 Drakensberg Mts.

16 Δ Mt. Kilimanjaro

17 The African Plateau Most of the continent of Africa is a Plateau (an area of high ground with a fairly level surface). The highest plateaus are in the South and East

18 Escarpment slope or cliff at the edge of a plateau or ridge
Cataract large waterfall. As rivers flow from the plateau to the coast they tumble over cataracts.

19 Great Rift Valley

20 Great Rift Valley 4,000 miles long
The Great Rift Valley is rich in minerals and metals Good soil for farming Because of volcanic ash there are well preserved bones and the world’s oldest human fossils have been found there 2 largest lakes in Africa are along the Great Rift Valley: Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi

21 Africa: The “Tropical” Continent
Tropic of Cancer 20° N 80% of Africa is in the tropics (the area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. This makes climates generally warm throughout the year. Equator 0° Tropic of Capricorn 20° S

22 Vegetation Zones Savanna - 51%, Tropical Rainforest - 8%, Desert - 40%
Mediterranean - 1%, About 85% of the land in Africa is not suited to farming

23 Tropical Wet Climate Region
Rain forests cover 8% of Africa Hot and humid year round (average temperature 80). Rainfall from inches (5 – 10 feet) a year Covers 37 countries. Leeching (rain washes away soil nutrients) leads to poor soil for farming. Lots of disease causing insects, mold and rot

24 Tropical Wet & Dry Climate: The African Savannah
The savannah is the largest climate zone in Africa covering over ½ of the continent There is a Wet (winter) and Dry (summer) season Unpredictable rainfall can lead to drought (long periods with little or no rain)

25 Deserts cover about 40% of Africa
Libyan Desert Deserts Deserts cover about 40% of Africa Sahara Desert Sahel Namib Desert Kalahari Desert

26 The Sahara Desert The Sahara is larger than the US. Temperatures can reach as high as 130 and some areas go 10 years without rain. A few areas have grasses that can support animals. For thousands of years people have carried goods and ideas across the Sahara.

27 The Kalahari Desert The Kalahari is not as dry as the Sahara. Grasses and wild melon grow and animals are able to graze.

28 The Namib Desert The Namib Desert is one of the driest places on Earth. Trees and get water from mists that drift from the Ocean. Still animals and people find ways to survive in this area.

29 Turning semidesert land into desert.
Desertification Turning semidesert land into desert. Desertification can happen by natural actions: drought or by human actions such as cutting down forest for cooking fuel or to make farmland, overgrazing of shrubs and grasses by cattle and goats. With no grass or tree roots, the topsoil blows away and the desert advances.

30 The Sahel is especially affected by desertification

31 Natural Resources The most abundant natural resources in Africa are gold, diamonds, copper, cobalt, and oil. However, the distribution of resources is uneven causing wealth in some counties and poverty in others.

32 Natural Resources (cont.)

33 The Complete Topography Of AFRICA
Mediterranean Sea Atlas Mts. Libyan Desert The Complete Topography Of AFRICA Tropic of Cancer 20° N Sahara Desert Red Sea Sahel Nile River Niger River L. Chad--> Great Rift Valley <--Gulf of Aden L. Albert--> Equator 0° Δ Mt. Kenya Congo River L. Victoria Δ Mt. Kilimanjaro L. Tanganyika-> Indian Ocean Ruwenzori Mts. Atlantic Ocean Zambezi River Namib Desert Kalahari Desert Limpopo River Tropic of Capricorn 20° S Orange River Drajensburg Mts. Pacific Ocean

34 The Africa you rarely see on TV



37 How well do you know the countries of Africa?
Click on the words above to play a review game.

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