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Geography of Africa.

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Presentation on theme: "Geography of Africa."— Presentation transcript:

1 Geography of Africa

2 Africa: The “Tropical” Continent
Tropic of Cancer 20° N Africa: The “Tropical” Continent Equator 0° Tropic of Capricorn 20° S

3 Second largest continent  11,700,000 sq. mi.
10% of the world’s population. 2 ½ times the size of the U. S.

4 The Complete Topography Of AFRICA Mediterranean Sea Atlas Mts.
Libyan Desert The Complete Topography Of AFRICA Tropic of Cancer 20° N Sahara Desert Red Sea Sahel Nile River Niger River L. Chad--> Great Rift Valley <--Gulf of Aden L. Albert--> Equator 0° Δ Mt. Kenya Congo River L. Victoria Δ Mt. Kilimanjaro L. Tanganyika-> Indian Ocean Ruwenzori Mts. Atlantic Ocean Zambezi River Namib Desert Kalahari Desert Limpopo River Tropic of Capricorn 20° S Orange River Drajensburg Mts. Pacific Ocean

5 Landforms Africa is a large plateau with escarpments on the edges.
An escarpment is similar to a cliff although not as steep. Africa has a smooth coastline with few natural harbors.

6 Map showing escarpments on the edge of the plateau
and rift valleys in East Africa.


8 Valleys & Plains Great Rift Valley

9 Rift Valleys Divergent plate activity formed the Great Rift Valley in East Africa. In some areas the Great Rift Valley is hundreds of miles wide. Rift valleys extend from The Red Sea to South Africa.


11 Rift Valley, Kenya

12 Rift Valleys East Africa has several large lakes that formed in the bottom of rift valleys. Lake Victoria Lake Tanganyika

13 Great Rift Valley 3,000 miles long

14 Mountains & Peaks Atlas Mts. Δ Mt. Kenya Δ Mt. Kilimanjaro
Ruwenzori Mts. Drajensburg Mts.

15 Mountains The highest mountains are the Atlas Mountains in the northwest, near the Mediterranean Sea. They rise to 13,600 feet (4,160 m) above sea level. Sub-Saharan Africa does not have large mountain ranges, but there are several tall mountains that are volcanoes. The tallest mountain is Mt. Kilimanjaro in Tanzania at 19,341 feet. The second tallest mountain is Mt. Kenya at 17,058 feet.

16 Mt. Kilimanjaro: Snow on the Equator?


18 Bodies Of Water Mediterranean Sea Red Sea Nile River Niger River
L. Chad--> <--Gulf of Aden L. Albert--> Congo River L. Victoria L. Tanganyika-> Indian Ocean Atlantic Ocean Zambezi River Limpopo River Orange River Pacific Ocean

19 Map showing major rivers in Africa

20 Nile River The Nile River is the longest river in the world.
Flows more than 4,000 miles northward through the desert Formed by the union of two rivers, the Blue Nile and the White Nile Empties into the Mediterranean Sea The land along the Nile is very fertile. Floods on the river deposit silt, or finely ground fertile soil, all along the river. Before it reaches the sea, the Nile fans out into a huge fertile delta.

21 The Congo River Basin Covers 12% of the continent.
Extends over 9 countries. 2,720 miles long. 99% of the country of Zaire is in the Congo River basin.

22 The Niger River Basin Covers 7.5% of the continent.
Extends over 10 countries. 2,600 miles long.

23 Cataracts or rapids on the Zambezi River

24 Hydroelectric Power

25 Aswan High Dam- Controls the Nile River
Lake Nasser was created behind it Finished in 1970 Benefits Fewer floods More farmable land

26 Climate Zones

27 Vegetation Zones

28 The African Savannah: 13 million sq. mi.

29 Savannah

30 Grasslands Savanna is a type of grassland located in tropical wet and dry climates. Most of the savanna in Africa is located in east Africa in Kenya or Tanzania. Steppe is a dry grassland located on the edges of the deserts.


32 The Sahel

33 Sahel- narrow band of dry grassland on the southern edge of the Sahara.

34 The Sahel

35 Libyan Desert Deserts Sahara Desert Sahel Namib Desert Kalahari Desert

36 The Sahara Largest hot desert in the world, covering most of North Africa Very dry, so very few people live there Nearly every settlement in the Sahara is located near an oasis, a wet and fertile area in a desert where a spring or well provides water. Common features in the Sahara include broad gravel plains, tall sand dunes, and dry streambeds.

37 Sahara Desert

38 The Sahara Desert


40 Map that shows the relative location of the Namib and
Kalihari Deserts. Notice how the deserts are in North and South Africa.

41 Desertification- expansion of dry conditions into moist areas that are next to deserts.
Major problem for the Sahel region

42 Desertification

43 African Rain Forest Annual rainfall of up to 17 ft.
Rapid decomposition (very humid). Covers 37 countries. 15% of the land surface of Africa.

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