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Chapter 1 Section 1 We the People Page 6.

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1 Chapter 1 Section 1 We the People Page 6

2 What is Civics Study of Citizenship and government
Citizen is a legally recognized member of a country The word Civics comes from the Latin work civis, which means citizen

3 Origins of Civics Concept originated in Greece in 590 BC
Later adopted by the Romans

4 Being a Citizen Romans used it to describe people that lived in the city of Rome Roman citizens had privileges like voting, they also had duties like paying taxes and serving in the army

5 A Citizen Today Rights of citizens differ from country to country
Some countries allow their citizens to vote Most country require the payment of taxes Some countries require military service, Israel (both male and female) Government: organizations, institutions, and individuals who exercise political authority over a group of people.

6 American Citizens Includes both rights and responsibilities
Includes being a productive member of society, part of a family, community, state and country. Being an effective citizen means fulfilling your duties and responsibilities as a member of all of these groups.

7 Becoming a good Citizen
Educate yourself Know the purpose of the government Become informed about issues important to you and your community.

8 American Values The U.S. Constitution and our laws are based on the ideals of: Equality Liberty Justice

9 Equality Declaration of Independence states that people are born with certain “unalienable rights” which means all people are created equal Every citizen has the right to fair and equal treatment for education, employment, and under the law.

10 QUESTION??? Even though the Declaration of Independence states that all people are created equal, has that always been the case? What people have fought for equality, and how did they do that?

11 Liberty Right to an education, chose where to live, worship, start a business, receive a fair trial. Who said: “Give me Liberty or Give me Death?”

12 Justice Your rights and freedoms cannot be taken from you as long as you follow the law. For over 200 years citizens have fought for your rights and freedoms, it is your “civic duty” to protect those rights.

13 Qualities of a Good Citizen
1. Vote 2. Express your opinions 3. Be an effective citizen (p.10)

14 Review Questions 1. Where does the word civis come from?
2. What are the three American Values? 3. Where did the idea of citizenship originate?

15 Review Questions???? 4. What are some ways to be an effective citizen?
5. Why is it important to vote? 6. What does equality mean?

16 Chapter 1 Section 2 Page 11

17 Americans from Everywhere
Melting pot versus Salad Bowl: Year ago people referred to America as a melting pot, where people came together and became one. Today many refer to America as a Salad Bowl, where everyone comes together but do not melt into one. What do you think???????

18 Immigrants People that come to America from other countries
When people come as adults they often keep their familiar traditions When people come as children they often adopt American way of life

19 Early Americans From Asia about 12,000 – 40,000 years ago. Ancestors of the modern Native American. Europeans began to arrive in the 1400s Who is considered the first European to land in the America?

20 Europeans Spain: Caribbean, Mexico, Central and South America, FL, TX, CA, and US Southwest British: original 13 colonies Germans: Pennsylvania French: NY, MA, SC Africans: Came as captured slaves

21 Immigration Policy 1775 American Revolution against British
Many immigrants came from Europe and China in hopes of a better life. There were many cultural and religious differences.

22 Immigration cont In 1880s Congress passed laws limiting immigration
1882 Chinese Exclusion Act: halted Chinese immigration Quota: established in 1920s, gave a specific number of immigrants from certain regions that could come into America.

23 Immigration cont Today the Immigration Act of 1990 sets total annual quota of immigrants at 675,000 starting in 1995 Preference goes to: 1. husbands, wives, and children of US citizens 2. people who have valuable job skills 3. aliens: permanent residents of another country

24 Becoming a US Citizen 1. Citizenship by Birth: native born, born in the US or territory. 90% of Americans

25 Becoming a Citizen cont
2. Naturalization: legal process by which an alien becomes a citizen. When a parent is naturalized his/her child is automatically a citizen. Cannot become President of the US

26 Becoming a citizen cont
3. Legal Aliens: million in US in Citizen from another country that receives permission to be in the US. Cannot vote, serve on juries, or hold public office, must carry a green card for verification.

27 Becoming a US Citizen cont
4. Illegal Immigrants: come to US without permission. Called undocumented immigrants because they lack permission to be in US. Border fences are being built Many illegal immigrants work for low wages in poor conditions As high as 8 – 12 million illegal immigrants

28 Becoming a Citizen cont
Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986: legalized undocumented residents who met certain requirements to reduce the flow of illegal immigration. Did it work?

29 Becoming a citizen cont
5. Refugees: not included in immigration quota. People who are trying to escape danger in their homeland. War, political persecution. Congress sets yearly quota for refugees What countries do you think refugees come from?

30 Review ????????? 1. What does native-born mean?
2. What are currently being built to control immigration? 3. What states did Spain settle in?

31 Review ?????? 4. What is an Alien? 5. What were some problems that immigrants faced in the 1800s? 6. What is the US a salad bowl or melting pot?

32 Chapter 1 Section 3 Page 17

33 The Census Taken every 10 years, last one was 2000.
It is an official, periodic counting of a population. Population at the last census was million, up 13.2% from 1990.

34 Importance of the Census
Determines representatives in each state. Make predictions about population Demographics: study of characteristics of human populations. Like ethnic backgrounds, number of children in each family Published on paper and internet

35 Population Growth By 2010 population is estimated to be 310 million
Natural Increase: birthrate refers to the number of live births per 1,000 members of population. death rate refers to the annual number of deaths per 1,000 members of population.

36 Pop Growth continued First US census was taken in 1790 and the US had 4 million people. 1830 there was 13 million people, many families had more than 5 children

37 Pop Growth cont 2. Adding Territory: America expanded westward and with new territory increased population. Included territory in the western US, like TX, CA, and lands of the Native Americans.

38 Pop Growth cont 3. Immigration: since 1820 more than 60 million immigrants from all over the world have come to the US.

39 Population Changes 1. Changing Households: Increase in divorce
Single family homes Families having few children Many do not marry at all Population is aging

40 Population changes cont
2. Changing Women’s Roles: In 1950 jobs for women were limited Today women are employed in a variety of jobs More women than men enter and graduate from college

41 Pop changes cont 3. An Older Population
In 2000 there were over 65,000 centenarians (people over 100) Portion of population over 65 is increasing Smaller group of wage earners will have to support a larger group of elderly

42 Pop changes cont 4. More Diverse Population: Number of Americans from mixed heritage has increased. The census has new categories to reflect the changes in demographics

43 Population on the move 1. Migration to the Cities: migration is a movement of large number of people from region to region. 1830 census increase in urban areas Problems in Cities: Overcrowding Disease Crime Fires Factories

44 Pop on the move cont 2. Drive to Suburbs: With the invention of the car people could live further away from work. People moved to the suburbs for: Better schools Quiet neighborhoods Larger homes *today more people live in suburbs than cities

45 Pop on the move cont 3. Migration to the Sunbelt: For most of our history people lived in the Northeast, but in the 1950s people started to move to warmer climates in the South. In 2000 Las Vegas was the fastest growing city 80% of Americans live in metropolitan areas

46 Review ???? 1. What is migration? 2. When was the last census taken?
3. What are some ways the census is used?

47 Review ???????? 4. What are the 3 ways that population grows?
5. How have women’s roles changed? 6. Why did people move to the suburbs?

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