2 World War 1: OverviewFirst total war in history (soldiers & civilians)In August 1914 it involved only 7 European countries but by November 1918 there were over 30 countries fightingBattles were fought in Europe, Asia, Africa, & on/under the Atlantic & Pacific OceansResulted in revolutions, changes of govts., loss of empires, the rise of great new powers, & millions of dead
3 World War I: Causes There were five underlying causes of WWI: a). Militarismb). Alliancesc). Nationalismd) Imperialisme). Assassination
4 MilitarismThe belief in the power of strong armies or navies to decide issues.It was thought that the only way to guarantee peace was to prepare for war.Based on the idea that if a nation is strong, then no enemy would dare to attack it.If war does break out, the militarized nation is able to defend itself.
5 MilitarismMilitarism led to an arms race before 1914 as each country tried to build a larger & more deadly war machine than its rivals. (page 80)The size of armies & navies would determine who was more powerful. (page 80)Germany contained Europe’s strongest armies while Great Britain was the world’s strongest naval power.Gr. Britain felt threatened when Germany began to construct a large navy.European nations were becoming increasingly suspicious & alarmed by the others’ military power.
7 AlliancesAlliances are formed when countries band together against a common threat.In 1914 we had two alliances:1.The Triple Alliance (“The Central Powers”) consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, & Italy2. The Triple Entente (“The Allies”) consisting of Great Britain, France, and Russia
9 NationalismNationalism is a feeling of deep loyalty to one’s people & homelandExtreme nationalism was causing problems in the early 20th century.Some people seemed willing to take any action to support their nation, regardless of the effect on othersThey were even ready to go to war to promote the interests of their homelands
10 NationalismNationalism was very strong in Serbia where people resented living under Austrian control.The Black Hand was a Serbian-Bosnian terrorist group that thought Bosnia should break away from AustriaFranz Ferdinand was killed by a Serb nationalist Gavrilo Princip, who belonged to the Black Hand, while visiting Sarajevo.
12 ImperialismImperialism is the policy of establishing colonies away from the homeland & building an empireColonies provided raw materials, markets for goods, & military strength for many European countries.Great Britain, France, Russia, Germany, the United States all wanted to build a colonial empire.Imperialism led to frequent quarrels among the great powers of Europe in all parts of the globe.Arguments over colonies & trade constantly threatened peace.
17 Assassination!.….of Franz Ferdinand (heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne) and his wife Sophia on June 28, 1914Assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia by Gavrillo Princip, a 19 year old member of the Serbian organization known as the Black HandSerbia had be demanding control of BosniaAustria-Hungary blamed Serbia, Russia remained an ally to SerbiaWithin one week all members were at war (known as “the spark” that started WWI)
18 Ultimatum......July 1914The Austro-Hungarian (A-H) govt blamed Serbia for the archduke’s death & attempted to crush Serb nationalismWith the support of Germany, A-H sent the Serbian govt an ultimatum (A ultimatum is a demand by one govt that another govt accept its terms or face war) to Serbiaa). put down all Serb nationalism against A-Hb). Punish those involved in the assassinationc). Allow A-H into Serbia to help destroy the Black HandSerbia accepted all except the last request
19 OutbreakAustria declared war on Serbia when Serbia rejected the Austrian ultimatum.Russia, Serbia’s ally, along with France, mobilized their armies.Germany declared war on both Russia & France when both countries refused to demobilize.Germany planned to attack France through neutral BelgiumBritain declared war on Germany when Belgium was invaded
20 Causes of WWI ReviewName the two alliances that existed in Europe in 1914?What countries belonged to these alliances?What is nationalism? What role did it play in the outbreak of war?What was the Black Hand? What role did it play in the assassination of Franz Ferdinand?How did imperialism causes problems between nations in the years leading to outbreak of war in 1914.What is militarism?