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Bosnia Humanitarian Intervention Presented By: Doyle Thibert, Sharon Aiger and Mary Winter.

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Presentation on theme: "Bosnia Humanitarian Intervention Presented By: Doyle Thibert, Sharon Aiger and Mary Winter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bosnia Humanitarian Intervention Presented By: Doyle Thibert, Sharon Aiger and Mary Winter

2 Humanitarian Intervention Defined The threat of use of force across state borders by a state (or group of states) to prevent or end widespread and grave violations of the fundamental human rights of individuals other than its own citizens, without the permission of the state within whose territory force is applied.

3 Humanitarian Intervention


5 Bosnia Capital: Sarajevo Area: 51,129 sq km / 19,745 sq ml Language: Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian Currency: Dinar Population: 3,989,018 Life expectancy: 69 (men), 75 (women) Literacy rate: 86% Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, and Protestant 4% Physical features: Mountainous, part of Dinaric Alps, limestone gorges, 20km / 12ml of coastline with no harbor Ethnic distribution: 48% ethnic Muslim, 37% Serb, 14% Croat, 6% Yugoslav Exports: Steel, coal, iron ore, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products


7 Key Players In The Conflict Serbs: Croats Muslims

8 The Conflict Issues Yugoslavia broke up because of various ethnic groups seeking independence Religion played big part in the break up Bosnia was multi-ethnic populated

9 The Conflict Issues Different ethnic groups side by side Croats – Catholic Serbs – Orthodox Muslims


11 The Conflict Issues In 1992 Bosnia passed a referendum for independence Eastern Orthodox Serbs did not want to live in a republic where people of different faiths and ethnic groups lived together Serbs in Bosnia rebelled

12 Conflict Issues Bosnian Muslims were outgunned There were mass shootings, forced repopulation of entire towns Men and boys were confined to concentration camps Women and girls were raped

13 Intervention Decisions Despite media reports of secret camps, mass killings & destruction the world remained indifferent The U.S. imposed economic sanctions on Serbia Deployed troops to protect food and medicine distribution

14 Intervention Decisions UN strictly prohibited its troops from interfering militarily against the Serbs Throughout 1993 the Serbs continued to commit genocide against Muslims

15 Intervention Decisions Bush administration did not want to become militarily involved because we had just fought the Gulf War Bush thought the conflict should be resolved by powers in Europe

16 Intervention Decisions From lessons learned in Vietnam Bush did not want to risk sending US forces in and then get bogged down and uncommitted to victory Bush had made his decision based on proportionality cost of the Vietnam War

17 Historical Background - 1945 After World War II, Yugoslavia, previously a monarchy becomes a communist republic under Prime Minister Tito It was composed of six republics: Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Macedonia, Slovenia, Montenegro, And Two provinces: Kosovo and Vojvodina

18 Historical Background - 1945 Seven neighboring countries, and problems with all of them Six republics with problems between them Ethnic groups are predominately: Bosnians - Muslim Serbs - Orthodox Christians Croats – Catholic Christians

19 Historical Background - 1980 Prime Minister Tito’s rein in Yugoslavia keeps ethnic tensions in check until his death Without his influence, ethnic and nationalist differences begin to flare

20 Historical Background - 1991 Slovenia and Croatia each declare independence Slovenia is able to break away with only a brief period of fighting Because 12% of Croatia's population is Serbian, however, Yugoslavia fights hard against its secession for the next four years As Croatia moves towards independence, it evicts most of its Serbian population

21 Historical Background - 1992 Bosnia & Bosnia & Herzegovina declares independence Serbia & Montenegro form Federal Republic of Yugoslavia led by Slobodan Milosevic New government is not recognized by the United States

22 Historical Background - 1992 Ethnic tensions strain to the breaking point & Bosnia erupts into war Bosnian Serb nationalists begin ethnic cleansing to create a "racially pure" Serb republic Thousands die and millions are displaced

23 Historical Background - 1995 Peace is achieved momentarily Bosnia, Serbia, and Croatia sign the Dayton Peace Accord to end the war in Bosnia The country is partitioned into three areas Each enclave is now made up of roughly 90% of its own ethnic group

24 Intervention - 1992 NATO issues statement urging allowance of United Nations Peacekeepers Primarily symbolic, this statement paved the way for later NATO actions NATO assists United Nations in monitoring compliance

25 Intervention - 1995 On August 30, 1995, NATO officially launched Operation Deliberate Force with large-scale bombing of Serb targets. The bombing lasted until September 20, 1995 and involved attacks on 338 individual targets

26 Intervention - 1995 Bosnia, Serbia, and Croatia sign the Dayton Peace Accord to end the war in Bosnia NATO agreed to provide 60,000 peacekeepers for the region Stabilization Force peacekeepers remained in Bosnia until 2004

27 Romeo & Juliet in Sarajevo - At the funeral service, Zijah Ismic gave a sermon for his daughter and her lover. "Their death was a message," he said. "Their death was a message that hatred destroys all who know it. War does not involve survivors and victims, winners and losers. It involves only victims."

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