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3. Emotional Development

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2 3. Emotional Development
1. Introduction 2. Fact or Fiction? 3. Emotional Development 4. Parents 5. Becoming Boys and Girls 6. Closing Thoughts 2

3 [Video: Socioemotional Development
Introduction Instruction: Click to start video This presentation explores sociocultural aspects of early childhood engaged with emotional control, rough play, parenting, morality, and sex differences. [Video: Socioemotional Development Introduction]

4 Cognitive Development
Fact or Fiction? Fiction Fact 1. Most young children underestimate their own abilities. 2. Permissive parenting is almost always the most destructive parental style. 3. Physical aggression increases as children mature, while verbal aggression declines. Instruction: Click to reveal each statement, then the category. Please note, this page is available to use with a clicker system. 4. The idea that some gender differences are biologically based is becoming less well accepted with each passing year.

5 Psychosocial Crises initiative vs guilt: Erikson’s third psychosocial crisis, in which children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them. What allows for emotional development during Erikson’s stage of initiative versus guilt? Emotional Regulation Motivation Initiative versus Guilt Self concept Instruction: Click to reveal details about emotional development. In addition to intrinsic motivation, people can also be driven by “extrinsic motivation”—that is, needing to have their achievements rewarded from outside—like gold stars given at school, or verbal praise given for accomplishments. In one study, children were supplied with drawing materials. The children either expected (1) no reward, (2) a specific reward they were told to expect, or (3) an unexpected reward (Lepper et al., 1973). Afterwards, researchers found that when it came to drawing on their own, the group that expected a reward was less likely to draw than the group that was unexpectedly rewarded. With further studies, researchers wanted to understand whether, when, and how positive reinforcement should be given. They tended to agree that praising or paying a person after an accomplishment sometimes encourages that behavior. However, if payment is promised in advance, that extrinsic reinforcement may backfire (Cameron & Pierce, 2002; Deci et al., 1999; Gottfried et al., 2009). Understanding who you are in relationship to self-esteem, appearance, personality, and various traits Preschool children mostly “intrinsically” motivated with a drive or reason to pursue a goal that comes from within Possible as limbic system connects with prefrontal cortex 5 5

6 Psychopathology Externalizing problems Internalizing problems
What is the relationship between emotional regulation and psychopathology in children? Externalizing problems Internalizing problems • lashing out at others or breaking things • difficulty with emotional regulation • expression of powerful feelings • uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts • turning emotions and distress inward • difficulty with emotional regulation • excessively feeling guilt, shame, worthlessness Instruction: Click to reveal details about each expression of psychopathology. Maturity affects emotional regulation. A 2-year-old might throw a temper tantrum, but 5-year-olds usually have more self-control—they might pout or curse, but not hit and scream. Also, a 2-year-old may show extreme fear and distress over things like a stranger wearing a hat or a drain in a bathtub, but 5-year-olds would have greater self-control. Externalizing and internalizing children have trouble regulating the expression of emotions—they either have too little self-control or they control themselves too much. Girls usually develop emotional regulation ahead of boys, especially when comparing externalizing emotions. In adolescence, girls are more often depressed, and this may be the result of too much internalizing. In both boys and girls, research suggests that extreme externalization or internalization predicts future psychopathology. psychopathology: An illness or disorder of the mind.

7 Empathy and Antipathy How do children show aggression?
The Four Forms of Aggression Type of Aggression Definition Comments Instrumental aggression Hurtful behavior that is aimed at gaining something (such as a toy, a place in line, or a turn on the swing) that someone else has Often increases from age 2 to 6; involves objects more than people; quite normal; more egocentric than antisocial Reactive aggression Indicates a lack of emotional regulation, characteristic of 2 - year olds. A 5 old can usually stop and think before reacting An impulsive retaliation for a hurt (intentional or accidental) that can be verbal or physical Instruction: Click to reveal details about each kind of aggression. Aggression grows out of antipathy—feeling of dislike or even hatred for another person. When children act on those feelings, they display antisocial behavior—deliberately hurtful or destructive feelings or behavior to another person. On the other hand, when children show feelings and actions that are helpful and kind and of not obvious benefit to themselves, they display prosocial behavior. Relational aggression Nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at harming the social connections between the victim and others Involves a personal attack and thus is directly antisocial; can be very hurtful; more common as children become socially aware Bullying aggression Unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves In both bullies and victims, a sign of poor emotional regulation; adults should intervene before the school years

8 Empathy and Antipathy [Video: Learning Emotional Display Rules:
Instructions: Click to play a video that shows how empathy develops as children age. In this video clip, several children are interviewed about a disappointing gift they could receive. How did the age difference and maturity among these children affect their responses about the disappointing gift? Do you think these kids are showing increased empathy? [Video: Learning Emotional Display Rules: The Disappointing Gift] 8

9 What are four basic parenting styles?
Authoritarian Authoritative Permissive Neglectful/Uninvolved • High behavior • Sets limits but • High nurturance and • Indifference standards listens communication • Unaware of what • Strict punishment of • Flexible • Little discipline, happens in child’s life misconduct guidance, or control of misconduct • Little communication Instruction: Click to reveal details about each parenting style. These styles were identified by Diana Baumrind around 50 years ago; her study included 100 preschool children in California, all of whom were middle-class European Americans. Multicultural and international research has found that specific discipline methods and family rules are less important than parental warmth, support, and concern.

10 What happens when the television is on?
The Challenge of Media What happens when the television is on? Percent of intervals 35 30 25 TV on Instruction: Click each square in the legend for the research results. While viewing these results, keep in mind that language development depends on conversation that is individualized to each child, and emotional regulation depends on parental guidance. Six major organizations recommend that parents limit their children’s television watching, with no electronic media at all allowed for children under age 2. 20 TV off 15 10 5 No interaction Active play 10 10

11 Theories of Gender Differences
How do theorists explain sex and gender differences in young children? Instruction: Automatic animation. In psychoanalytic theory, ages 3 to 6 are the phallic stage; boys want to replace their fathers and win their mother’s love (the Oedipus complex), while girls want to replace their mother and win their father’s romantic love (the Electra complex). According to behaviorism: gender distinctions are the product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment, as well as social learning. Cognitive theorists think that at around age 5, when children show strong gender identity, they understand sex differences due to a belief based on experience. This is called gender schema. sex differences: Biological differences between males and females, in organs, hormones, and body types. gender differences: Differences in the roles and behavior of males and females that are prescribed by the culture. 11 11

12 Becoming Boys and Girls Theories of Gender Differences
What is your argument? What could be a counterargument? Instruction: An argument might include cultural learning, perhaps mostly via observation plus reinforcement by parents and teachers of “gender-appropriate” behavior. A counterargument might include that gender differences involving play emerge at a young age, before children have a chance to be influenced by learning. Those differences may well be—at least partly—biological in nature. Statement: Girls tend to play in small groups, with one or two friends, while boys tend to play in larger, less intimate groups. 12 12

13 Gender and Destiny What gender patterns should children learn?
Instruction: Answers from developmentalists about questions related to gender vary. This is also true of mothers and fathers and people from different cultures.

14 Closing Thoughts What would you identify as the important milestones and lessons young children learn about their feelings and relationships with the people in their lives? Describe an important socioemotional development during early childhood. Instruction: What would you identify as the important milestones and lessons young children learn about their feelings and relationships with the people in their lives? Examples: learning social play; Clarifying gender roles; Learning emotional regulation


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