2 3. Emotional Development 1. Introduction2. Fact or Fiction?3. Emotional Development4. Parents5. Becoming Boys and Girls6. Closing Thoughts2
3 [Video: Socioemotional Development IntroductionInstruction:Click to start videoThis presentation explores sociocultural aspects of early childhood engaged with emotional control, rough play, parenting, morality, and sex differences.[Video: Socioemotional DevelopmentIntroduction]
4 Cognitive Development Fact or Fiction?FictionFact1. Most young children underestimate their own abilities.2. Permissive parenting is almost always the most destructive parental style.3. Physical aggression increases as children mature, while verbal aggression declines.Instruction:Click to reveal each statement, then the category.Please note, this page is available to use with a clicker system.4. The idea that some gender differences are biologically based is becoming less well accepted with each passing year.
5 Psychosocial Crisesinitiative vs guilt: Erikson’s third psychosocial crisis, in which children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them.What allows for emotional development during Erikson’s stage of initiative versus guilt?Emotional RegulationMotivationInitiative versus GuiltSelf conceptInstruction:Click to reveal details about emotional development.In addition to intrinsic motivation, people can also be driven by “extrinsic motivation”—that is, needing to have their achievements rewarded from outside—like gold stars given at school, or verbal praise given for accomplishments.In one study, children were supplied with drawing materials. The children either expected (1) no reward, (2) a specific reward they were told to expect, or (3) an unexpected reward (Lepper et al., 1973). Afterwards, researchers found that when it came to drawing on their own, the group that expected a reward was less likely to draw than the group that was unexpectedly rewarded.With further studies, researchers wanted to understand whether, when, and how positive reinforcement should be given. They tended to agree that praising or paying a person after an accomplishment sometimes encourages that behavior. However, if payment is promised in advance, that extrinsic reinforcement may backfire (Cameron & Pierce, 2002; Deci et al., 1999; Gottfried et al., 2009).Understanding who you are in relationship to self-esteem, appearance, personality, and various traitsPreschool children mostly “intrinsically” motivated with a drive or reason to pursue a goal that comes from withinPossible as limbic system connects with prefrontal cortex55
6 Psychopathology Externalizing problems Internalizing problems What is the relationship between emotional regulation and psychopathology in children?Externalizing problemsInternalizing problems• lashing out at others or breaking things• difficulty with emotional regulation• expression of powerful feelings• uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts• turning emotions and distress inward• difficulty with emotional regulation• excessively feeling guilt, shame, worthlessnessInstruction:Click to reveal details about each expression of psychopathology.Maturity affects emotional regulation. A 2-year-old might throw a temper tantrum, but 5-year-olds usually have more self-control—they might pout or curse, but not hit and scream. Also, a 2-year-old may show extreme fear and distress over things like a stranger wearing a hat or a drain in a bathtub, but 5-year-olds would have greater self-control. Externalizing and internalizing children have trouble regulating the expression of emotions—they either have too little self-control or they control themselves too much.Girls usually develop emotional regulation ahead of boys, especially when comparing externalizing emotions. In adolescence, girls are more often depressed, and this may be the result of too much internalizing.In both boys and girls, research suggests that extreme externalization or internalization predicts future psychopathology.psychopathology: An illness or disorder of the mind.
7 Empathy and Antipathy How do children show aggression? The Four Forms of AggressionType of AggressionDefinitionCommentsInstrumental aggressionHurtful behavior that is aimedat gaining something (such as atoy, a place in line, or a turn onthe swing) that someone elsehasOften increases from age 2 to 6;involves objects more thanpeople; quite normal; moreegocentric than antisocialReactive aggressionIndicates a lack of emotionalregulation, characteristic of 2-yearolds. A 5old canusually stop and think beforereactingAn impulsive retaliation for ahurt (intentional or accidental)that can be verbal or physicalInstruction:Click to reveal details about each kind of aggression.Aggression grows out of antipathy—feeling of dislike or even hatred for another person. When children act on those feelings, they display antisocial behavior—deliberately hurtful or destructive feelings or behavior to another person.On the other hand, when children show feelings and actions that are helpful and kind and of not obvious benefit to themselves, they display prosocial behavior.Relational aggressionNonphysical acts, such as insultsor social rejection, aimed atharming the social connectionsbetween the victim and othersInvolves a personal attack andthus is directly antisocial; can bevery hurtful; more common aschildren become socially awareBullying aggressionUnprovoked, repeated physicalor verbal attack, especially onvictims who are unlikely todefend themselvesIn both bullies and victims, asign of poor emotionalregulation; adults shouldintervene before the schoolyears
8 Empathy and Antipathy [Video: Learning Emotional Display Rules: Instructions:Click to play a video that shows how empathy develops as children age.In this video clip, several children are interviewed about a disappointing gift they could receive.How did the age difference and maturity among these children affect their responses about the disappointing gift?Do you think these kids are showing increased empathy?[Video: Learning Emotional Display Rules:The Disappointing Gift]8
9 What are four basic parenting styles? AuthoritarianAuthoritativePermissiveNeglectful/Uninvolved• High behavior• Sets limits but• High nurturance and• Indifferencestandardslistenscommunication• Unaware of what• Strict punishment of• Flexible• Little discipline,happens in child’slifemisconductguidance, or controlof misconduct• Little communicationInstruction:Click to reveal details about each parenting style.These styles were identified by Diana Baumrind around 50 years ago; her study included 100 preschool children in California, all of whom were middle-class European Americans.Multicultural and international research has found that specific discipline methods and family rules are less important than parental warmth, support, and concern.
10 What happens when the television is on? The Challenge of MediaWhat happens when the television is on?Percent of intervals353025TV onInstruction:Click each square in the legend for the research results.While viewing these results, keep in mind that language development depends on conversation that is individualized to each child, and emotional regulation depends on parental guidance.Six major organizations recommend that parents limit their children’s television watching, with no electronic media at all allowed for children under age 2.20TV off15105No interactionActive play1010
11 Theories of Gender Differences How do theorists explain sex and gender differences in young children?Instruction:Automatic animation.In psychoanalytic theory, ages 3 to 6 are the phallic stage; boys want to replace their fathers and win their mother’s love (the Oedipus complex), while girls want to replace their mother and win their father’s romantic love (the Electra complex).According to behaviorism: gender distinctions are the product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment, as well as social learning.Cognitive theorists think that at around age 5, when children show strong gender identity, they understand sex differences due to a belief based on experience. This is called gender schema.sex differences: Biological differences between males and females, in organs, hormones, and body types.gender differences: Differences in the roles and behavior of males and females that are prescribed by the culture.1111
12 Becoming Boys and Girls Theories of Gender Differences What is your argument? What could be a counterargument?Instruction:An argument might include cultural learning, perhaps mostly via observation plus reinforcement by parents and teachers of “gender-appropriate” behavior.A counterargument might include that gender differences involving play emerge at a young age, before children have a chance to be influenced by learning. Those differences may well be—at least partly—biological in nature.Statement: Girls tend to play in small groups, with one or two friends, while boys tend to play in larger, less intimate groups.1212
13 Gender and Destiny What gender patterns should children learn? Instruction:Answers from developmentalists about questions related to gender vary. This is also true of mothers and fathers and people from different cultures.
14 Closing ThoughtsWhat would you identify as the important milestones and lessons young children learn about their feelings and relationships with the people in their lives?Describe an important socioemotional development during early childhood.Instruction:What would you identify as the important milestones and lessons young children learn about their feelings and relationships with the people in their lives?Examples: learning social play; Clarifying gender roles; Learning emotional regulation