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Chapter 15: Family Relationships

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1 Chapter 15: Family Relationships
Module 15.1 Parenting Module 15.2 Brothers and Sisters Module 15.3 Divorce and Remarriage Module 15.4 Parent-Child Relationships Gone Awry Children and Their Development, 3/e by Robert Kail

2 15.1 Parenting The Family as a System Dimensions and Styles
Parental Behavior Children’s Contributions Cultural Influences and Family Configuration

3 15.1 The Family as a System Parents influence children directly and indirectly Children also influence parents Parents influence each other and both are influenced by outside forces (e.g., work, grandparents)

4 Family as a System 15.1: The Family as a System

5 15.1 Dimensions and Styles Two primary dimensions: warmth & responsiveness and control High levels of warmth and responsiveness and moderate levels of control are the best Control involves setting age-appropriate standards, consistent enforcement of rules and good communication Styles: authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent-permissive, and indifferent-uninvolved In general, authoritative parenting is associated with best outcomes for children

6 Dimensions and Styles of Parenting
15.1: Parenting Styles

7 15.1 Parental Behavior Direct instruction: telling children what to do, when, and why Observing: children learn from watching others and from counterimitation (learning what should not be done) Feedback: reinforcement useful but parents often unknowingly reinforce behaviors they want to prevent (negative reinforcement trap)

8 15.1 Children’s Contributions
Parents’ expressions of warmth and control change as children develop Parents behave differently depending on a child’s specific behavior Influence between parents and children is reciprocal

9 15.1 Cultural Influences and Family Configuration
Views about the ‘proper’ amount of parental warmth and control vary by culture Chinese parents are more likely to emphasize control and American parents are more likely to emphasize affection Grandparents have many different styles: formal, fun-seeking, distant, dispensing-family-wisdom, and surrogate-parent Children of gay and lesbian parents resemble children of heterosexual parents

10 15.2 Brothers and Sisters Firstborn, Laterborn, and Only Children
Qualities of Sibling Relationships

11 15.2 Firstborn, Laterborn, and Only Children
Firstborns are more adult- and achievement-oriented; laterborns are more sociable and more innovative; onlies have more academic success, higher levels of intelligence, leadership, autonomy, and maturity Adopted children are similar to non-adopted in terms of temperament, attachment, and cognitive development Problems are more likely to occur if the child was older when adopted and their pre-adoption care was poor

12 15.2 Qualities of Sibling Relationships
Older siblings may be a source of care and comfort and may be teachers Sibs get along best when (1) they are same sex, (2) neither is emotional, (3) younger enters adolescence, (4) parents don’t show favoritism, and (5) parents have warm relationship with each other Parental intervention when siblings fight can lead to more positive interactions and better negotiating skills

13 15.3 Divorce and Remarriage
Family Life After Divorce Impact of Divorce on Children Blended Families

14 15.3 Family Life After Divorce
Immediately after: children behave less maturely, mothers are less affectionate, and parenting is less effective 2 years after: mother-child relationships improved, mothers were more affectionate, and fathers demanded more mature behavior 6 years after: mothers and daughters very close, but mothers and sons had conflicts

15 15.3 Impact of Divorce on Children
Divorce affects children’s conduct, school achievement, adjustment, self-concept, and relationships with parents Effects of divorce dropped from the 1970s to 1980s and increased again in the 1990s Divorce may affect development because of loss of a parental role model, economic hardship, and conflict between parents Divorce more harmful when it occurs during childhood and adolescence or when children interpret events negatively

16 15.3 Blended Families Preadolescent boys tend to benefit from presence of stepfather, but preadolescent girls do not adjust as easly to mother’s remarriage Best strategy for stepfathers is to be interested, but don’t interfere with established routines Noncustodial mothers are more likely to maintain close and frequent contact with children

17 15.4 Parent-Child Relationships Gone Awry
Consequences of Maltreatment Causes of Maltreatment Preventing Maltreatment

18 15.4 Consequences of Maltreatment
When children are abused, their social, emotional, and intellectual development is often affected As adults, children who were abused are more prone to depression and anxiety, are more likely to think about or attempt suicide, and are more likely be abusers themselves

19 15.4 Causes of Maltreatment
Cultural and social factors--cultural attitudes, poverty, social isolation Parental factors--ineffective parenting skills, dysfunctional marriage, and may have been maltreated themselves Child factors--very young and ill children more often targets as are stepchildren

20 15.4 Preventing Maltreatment
Change societal attitudes toward acceptable punishment Eliminating poverty and other stressors Providing parents with better parenting and coping skills and social support Early childhood intervention programs may help by encouraging parental involvement and providing support

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