Presentation on theme: "Anxiety Disorders Chapter 11 Section 2. Types of Anxiety Disorders Disorders are characterized by excessive or inappropriate anxiety reactions. Major."— Presentation transcript:
Types of Anxiety Disorders Disorders are characterized by excessive or inappropriate anxiety reactions. Major types ◦ Phobias ◦ Panic disorder ◦ Generalized anxiety disorder ◦ Obsessive-compulsive disorder
PHOBIAS Phobias- Irrational or excessive fears of particular objects or situations. The DSM-IV classifies 3 types of phobic disorders. Social phobia (meeting others, dating, giving speeches in class) Specific phobia (heights, animals, insects, enclosed spaces) Agoraphobia (open or public places)
Panic Disorder People with panic disorder experience sudden episodes of sheer terror. Characterized by intense physical symptoms (Write down 3) ◦ Profuse sweating ◦ Nausea ◦ Numbness or tingling ◦ Chills ◦ Trembling ◦ Chest pain ◦ Shortness of breath ◦ Rapid heartbeat
Panic Disorder Panic disorder can, at first, come out of the blue. Later, they are usually associated with situations ◦ Agoraphobia can develop in people who have panic disorders.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder Experience persistent anxiety that is not tied to any particular object or situation. Anxiety is a “free floating” quality that travels with the person from place to place.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Persistent obsessions and/or compulsions. Nagging, intrusive thoughts that are unable to be controlled. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or “rituals” the person performs again and again.
So… What’s the difference between a compulsion and a superstition?
Causes of Anxiety Disorders Biological Factors ◦ Genetics have been found to be a cause of panic disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, OCD, and phobic disorders
Causes of Anxiety Disorders Biological Factors ◦ Biochemical changes in brain trigger an “internal alarm” to induce panic ◦ Obsessional thinking may be linked to danger sensing areas of the brain may be heightened in some people.
Causes of Anxiety Disorders Psychological Factors ◦ Phobias may be learned through classical conditioning (people who have been bit by dogs maybe scared of them). ◦ Operant conditioning may reinforce avoidance behavior (avoidance of object is negatively reinforced by feelings of safety).
Causes of Anxiety Disorders Negative reinforcement can help perpetuate OCD (obsessive thoughts trigger anxiety, which is partially relieved through performing a ritual. In effect, the solution becomes the problem)
Causes of Anxiety Disorders Triggering stimulus (internal or external) Perceived Threat Feelings of apprehension or worry Body Sensations Catastrophic interpretations of sensations