I. What are they? A. Definition: behavior patterns or mental processes that cause serious personal suffering or interfere with a person’s ability to cope with everyday life B. More common than you think: estimates suggest that almost one third (33%) of US adults have experienced some form of psychological disorder
C. Symptoms 1. What might suggest that an individual has a psych. disorder? Typicality (how “average”) Maladaptivity (behaviors that impair ability to function adequately in everyday life) Emotional discomfort (severe personal emotional discomfort) Socially unacceptable behavior (within a culturally-bound context)
D. Classifying Psychological Disorders 1. Most widely used classifying system is DSM—Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders by American Psychiatric Association (See p. 414) 2. Since 1980, the DSM III categorizes disorders on the basis of observable signs and symptoms rather than presumed causes based on Freud’s psychoanalytic theory. 3. DSM is subject to ongoing revision...
D. Classifying... cont’d 4. Six major types of disorders: anxiety disorders dissociative disorders somatoform disorders mood disorders schizophrenia personality disorders
II. Anxiety Disorders A general state of dread or uneasiness that occurs in response to a vague or imagined danger. Some anxiety is normal—problematic when a person feels this way all the time or if anxiety is out of proportion to the situation. A. Emotional Signs: nervousness, inability to relax, concern about losing control
II. Anxiety Disorders... cont’d. B. Physical Signs: trembling, sweating, rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, increased blood flow, flushed face, feeling faint, light-headedness C. Phobic Disorder: 1. Simple Phobia—most common, refers to a persistent excessive or irrational fear of a particular object or situation. Leads to avoidance that interferes with everyday life.
II. Anxiety Disorders... cont’d. Examples of simple phobias: zoophobia— claustrophobia— arachnophobia— hematophobia— aviaphobia— 2. Social Phobia—persistent fear of social situations in which they might be exposed to close scrutiny of others.
II. Anxiety Disorders... cont’d. D. Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia— recurring and unexpected panic attacks. Panic attack = a period of intense fear or discomfort characterized by shortness of breath, dizziness, rapid heart rate, trembling, sweating, choking, nausea. Can last from minutes to hours—may believe they are dying or going crazy. Agoraphobia = fear of being in places that might be difficult/impossible to escape.
E. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Excessive and/or unrealistic worry about life circumstances that last for at least 6 months. F. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) 1. Most acute of anxiety disorders 2. Obsession = unwanted thoughts, ideas or mental images 3. Compulsions = repetitive ritual behaviors involving checking and cleaning
II. Anxiety Disorders... cont’d. G. Stress Disorders : 1. Post-traumatic stress disorder—intense, persistent feelings of anxiety caused by a traumatic experience. Ex._____________ Symptoms include: flashbacks, nightmares, numbness of feelings, avoidance, sleep disturbances, irritability, poor concentration Lasts more than 6 months—can last for years
II. Anxiety Disorders... cont’d. 2. Acute stress disorder—short-term with similar symptoms of PTSD which occur immediately and only lasts from a few days to a few weeks. Psychological Views: Psychoanalytic theory—anxiety is result of forbidden childhood urges that have been repressed. Learning theory—phobias are conditioned in childhood Cognitive theory—anxiety is caused by negative response to most situations and helpless feelings result.
II. Anxiety Disorders... cont’d. Biological views: --Research with identical twins and adoptees shows heredity may play a role in anxiety disorders Some cases of anxiety disorders reflect the interaction of both biological and psychological factors