Medical Model considers forms of abnormal behavior to be a disease The major issue with diagnosis of abnormal behavior: Where is the line between abnormal behavior and illness?
What determines a psychological disorder? Clinical Criteria: 1.) Deviance – Behavior deviates from what society considers acceptable 2.) Maladaptive – Behavior interferes with person’s everyday functioning 3.) Personal Distress- Behavior causes person some distress Diagnosis issues
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) ◦ This book outlines the system for classifying psychological disorders
1.) Generalized Anxiety Disorder ◦ Marked by chronic, high level of anxiety not tied to any specific threat 2.) Phobic Disorder ◦ Person has a persistent and irrational fear of object or situation presenting no real danger (phobia) 3.) Panic Disorder ◦ Recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly Often leads to agoraphobia ◦ Agoraphobia – fear of going out to public places
4.) Obsessive Compulsive Disorder ◦ Marked by persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions) ◦ Some common behaviors ◦ Howard Hughes 5.) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) ◦ Enduring psychological disturbance attributed to experience of a major traumatic event. Example events Symptoms
Seems to be a moderate genetic predisposition These may be acquired through classical or operant conditioning ◦ How so? A certain style of thinking may lead a person to be more vulnerable
Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder) ◦ Involves coexistence in one person of two or more largely complete and usually very different personalities Characteristics:
Specific cause of disorder unknown Some believe disorder is not real: Others believe it is authentic
Major Depressive Disorder ◦ Persistent feelings of sadness and despair + loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure ◦ Symptoms: ◦ Average episode length ◦ Percentage of Americans who suffer at some point:
Bipolar Disorder ◦ Marked by experience of both depressed and manic periods ◦ What is behavior like during manic period? ◦ What is behavior like during depressed period?
Heredity can cause a predisposition Neurochemical factors ◦ Abnormal levels of norepinephrine and serotonin may contribute
Sample Clip ◦ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gGnl8dqEoPQ What percentage of population may be afflicted Symptoms: 1.) Delusions and Irrational Thought ◦ Sample thoughts ◦ Delusions of grandeur ◦ Chaotic, non linear thinking 2.) Deterioration of Adaptive Behavior
3.) Distorted Perception ◦ Auditory Hallucinations most common ◦ Hallucinations – Sensory perceptions that occur in absence of a real, external stimulus 4.) Disturbed Emotion ◦ Flattening of emotions or inappropriate emotional responses to situations