2 Where are religions distributed? Key Issue #1Where are religions distributed?
3 Where Are Religions Distributed? Universalizing religionsSeek to appeal to all peopleAbout 60% of the worldEthnic religionsAppeal to a smaller group of people living in one placeAbout 25% of the world
5 World Population by Religion Fig. 6-1a: Over two-thirds of the world’s population belong to Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, or Buddhism. Christianity is the single largest world religion.
6 Where Are Religions Distributed? Universalizing religionsChristianityThe largest world religion (about 2 billion adherents)Many adherents in Europe, the AmericasThree major branchesRoman Catholicism (51 percent)Protestant Christianity (24 percent)Eastern Orthodox (11 percent)Other, smaller branches of Christianity comprise 14 percent of all Christians
7 Distribution of Christians in the United States Figure 6-2
8 Diffusion of Christianity Fig. 6-5: Christianity diffused from Palestine through the Roman Empire and continued diffusing through Europe after the fall of Rome. It was later replaced by Islam in much of the Mideast and North Africa.
9 Where Are Religions Distributed? Universalizing religionsIslamThe second-largest world religion (about 1.3 billion adherents)Significant clusters in the Middle East, North Africa, and South AsiaCore of Islamic belief = the five pillarsTwo significant branchesSunnis (83 percent)Shias or Shiites (16 percent)
10 Diffusion of IslamFig. 6-6: Islam diffused rapidly and widely from its area of origin in Arabia. It eventually stretched from southeast Asia to West Africa.
11 Where Are Religions Distributed? Universalizing religionsBuddhismAbout 400 million adherents (difficult to quantify)Significant clusters in China, Southeast AsiaThe Four Noble TruthsThree branchesMahayana (China, Japan, Korea)Theravada (Southeast Asia)Tantrayana (Tibet, Mongolia)
12 Diffusion of BuddhismFig. 6-7: Buddhism diffused gradually from its origin in northeastern India to Sri Lanka, southeast Asia, and eventually China and Japan.
13 Diffusion of Universalizing Religions Fig. 6-4: Each of the three main universalizing religions diffused widely from its hearth.
14 Where Are Religions Distributed? Ethnic religionsHinduismThe third-largest religion in the world (900 million adherents)97 percent of Hindus are found in IndiaMany paths to spirituality
15 Where Are Religions Distributed? Ethnic religionsOther ethnic religionsConfucianism (China)Daoism (China)Shinto (Japan)Judaism (today: the United States, Israel)The first monotheistic religionEthnic African religionsAnimism
16 Shintoism and Buddhism in Japan Fig. 6-8: Since Japanese can be both Shinto and Buddhist, there are many areas in Japan where over two-thirds of the population are both Shinto and Buddhist.
19 Why do religions have different distributions? Key Issue #2Why do religions have different distributions?
20 Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Origin of religionsUniversalizing: precise origins, tied to a specific founderChristianityFounder: JesusIslamProphet of Islam: MuhammadBuddhismFounder: Siddhartha Gautama
21 Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Origin of religionsEthnic: unclear or unknown origins, not tied to a specific founderHinduismNo clear founderEarliest use of Hinduism = sixth century B.C.Archaeological evidence dating from 2500 B.C.
22 Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Diffusion of religionsUniversalizing religionsChristianityDiffuses via relocation and expansion diffusionIslamDiffuses to North Africa, South and Southeast AsiaBuddhismSlow diffusion from the core
23 Diffusion of Universalizing Religions Figure 6-6
24 Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Limited diffusion of ethnic religionsUniversal religions usually compete with ethnic religionsExamples of mingling:Christianity with African ethnic religionsBuddhism with Confucianism in China and with Shinto in JapanEthnic religions can diffuse with migrationJudaism = exception
25 Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Holy placesIn universalizing religionsBuddhist shrinesHoly places in Islam = associated with the life of MuhammadIn ethnic religionsHoly places in Hinduism = closely tied to the physical geography of IndiaCosmogony in ethnic religions
26 Diffusion of Universalizing Religions Figure 6-17
27 Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? The calendarIn ethnic religions = celebration of the seasonsThe Jewish calendarThe solsticeIn universalizing religions = celebration of the founder’s life
28 Holy Sites in BuddhismFig. 6-9: Most holy sites in Buddhism are locations of important events in Buddha’s life and are clustered in northeastern India and southern Nepal.
29 Why do religions organize space in distinctive patterns? Key Issue #3Why do religions organize space in distinctive patterns?
30 Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Ways? Places of worshipMany types: Christian churches, Muslim mosques, Jewish synagogues, Hindu temples, Buddhist and Shinto pagodas, Bahá’í houses of worshipFigure 6-19
51 Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Ways? Administration of spaceHierarchical religionsRoman CatholicsLatter-day Saints (Mormons)Locally autonomous religionsIslamProtestant denominations
52 Mecca, Islam’s Holiest City Fig. 6-10: Makkah (Mecca) is the holiest city in Islam and is the site of pilgrimage for millions of Muslims each year. There are numerous holy sites in the city.
53 Roman Catholic Hierarchy in the United States Figure 6-22
54 Why do territorial conflicts arise among religious groups? Key Issue #4Why do territorial conflicts arise among religious groups?
55 Why Do Territorial Conflicts Arise? Religions versus government policiesReligion versus social changeTaliban and Western valuesHinduism and social inequalityCaste systemReligion versus communismEastern Orthodoxy and Islam in the Soviet UnionBuddhism in Southeast Asia
56 Why Do Territorial Conflicts Arise? Religion versus religionFundamentalismReligious wars in IrelandReligious wars in the Middle EastCrusades (Christians in Muslim lands)Jews and Muslims in Palestine
57 Two Perspectives on Palestine/Israel Figure 6-26
58 Boundary Changes in Palestine/Israel Fig. 6-15: The UN partition plan for Palestine in 1947 contrasted with the boundaries that were established after the 1948–49 War. Major changes later resulted from the 1967 War.
59 JerusalemFig. 6-14: The Old City of Jerusalem contains holy sites for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.