Buddhism First universalizing religion (India) Siddhartha Guatama (budda) Diffusion – India, China, Korea, Japan, Tibet, Mongolia, SE Asia-Silk road Branches – Theravada-Monks-cite Buddha's wisdom – Mahayana- meditation and prayer- cite Buddha’s compassion – Vajrayan- Practice Rituals “Tantras” – Lamaism- Leader Dalai Lama Pilgrimages
Christianity Second universalizing religion (largest in #’s) Bethlehem/ Jesus Christ Diffusion – Expansion and relocation from Palestine – Roman Empire adopted and extended – Colonial Missionaries – Different branches different parts of the world i.e. Roman Catholic Latin America Branches – Roman Catholic – Protestant – E Orthodox Other – Churches – Take up a lot of burial space
Islam Third universalizing religion Mecca, Saudi Arabia/ Muhammad Diffusion – Muhammad took to Media, Saudia Arabia – Diffusing which caused Christians to take back land Muslims were diffusing to Branches – Sunni 85% Muslims – Shiite majority in Iraq and Iran although minority overall Strict believers that only direct descendants of Muhammad should rule Other Koran/ Mosque Pilgrimages if afford 5 pillars
Sikhism Smaller universalizing religion Pakistan/Guru Nanak Diffusion – Pakistan to N India – Global diaspora (scattering of ethnic groups) Other – Guru Granth Sahib holy book – Monotheistic – Holy site Golden Temple – Sikhs and Hindus in India Sikhs want independent country
Hinduism Ethic religion (India) closely identified with Indian origins India, Sri Lanka, UK, US, Canada Ancient scripture Vedas no holy book Reincarnation Caste System (social hierarchy into which ppl are born) Gandhi was Hindu Cremation Bathing in the Ganges River/Pilgrimage is holy
Judaism Modern Day Palestine- Abraham Diffusion – Roman empire destroyed Jerusalem all around world – Diaspora (scattering of a ethnic group) Branches – Orthodox Judaism – Reform Judaism – Conservative Judaism Other – Torah (old testament) Talmud (historical teaching passed down 1 generation to the next) – Synagogue – Jerusalem’s western wall
E Asian Ethnic Religions Shintoism Taoism (Daoism) Confucianism Shamanism Animism Secularism- indifferent to religion or rejecting all together. Movement away from control of life by a religion. Theocracy-government run by religion
Variations in Distribution of Religions (1) Origin of religions – Origin of universalizing religions – Origin of Hinduism Diffusion of religions – Diffusion of universalizing religions – Lack of diffusion of ethnic religions Ethnic religions diffuse if migration is for economic reasons and their not forced to adopt universalizing religions
Diffusion of Religions Universalizing- specific hearths Ethnic religions- clusters Relocation-migration – Palestine-Missionaries-sea routes, military, communication networks Expansion- “snowballing” [hierarchical- key leaders, or contagious- wide spread] – Daily interactions between believers in town and non believers in countryside. Conversion of indigenous peoples and intermarriage.
Diffusion of Universalizing Religions Fig. 6-4: Each of the three main universalizing religions diffused widely from its hearth.
Diffusion of Christianity Fig. 6-5: Christianity diffused from Palestine through the Roman Empire and continued diffusing through Europe after the fall of Rome. It was later replaced by Islam in much of the Mideast and North Africa.
Diffusion of Islam Fig. 6-6: Islam diffused rapidly and widely from its area of origin in Arabia. It eventually stretched from southeast Asia to West Africa.
Diffusion of Buddhism Fig. 6-7: Buddhism diffused gradually from its origin in northeastern India to Sri Lanka, southeast Asia, and eventually China and Japan.
Shintoism & Buddhism in Japan Fig. 6-8: Since Japanese can be both Shinto and Buddhist, there are many areas in Japan where over two-thirds of the population are both Shinto and Buddhist.
Variations in Distribution of Religions (2) Holy places – Holy places in universalizing religions – Holy places in ethnic religions The calendar – The calendar in ethnic religions – The calendar in universalizing religions
Organization of Space Places of worship – Christian worship – Places of worship in other religions Sacred space – Disposing of the dead – Religious settlements – Religious place names Administration of space – Hierarchical religions (IMPERIALISM) – Locally autonomous religions
Place Names in Québec Fig. 6-12: Place names in Québec show the impact of religion on the landscape. Many cities and towns are named after saints.
Roman Catholic Hierarchy in U.S. Fig. 6-13: The Catholic church divides the U.S. into provinces headed by archbishops. Provinces are divided into dioceses, headed by bishops.