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Religion Human Geography 10e.

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Presentation on theme: "Religion Human Geography 10e."— Presentation transcript:

1 Religion Human Geography 10e

2 Religion Belief systems
Common beliefs, understandings, expectations, and objects held in the high regard Unite different culture groups and set them off from other, different groups of people 2 Human Geography 12e

3 Classification of Religion
Monotheism and Polytheism Classification based on religion’s distribution and patterns and processes of diffusion: Universalizing Religions Ethnic Religions Tribal or Traditional Religions 3 Human Geography 12e

4 Figure 5.19

5 Table 5.2

6 The World Pattern More than half of the world’s population adheres to one of the major universalizing religions: Christianity and Islam are most widespread; Buddhism is largely an Asian religion Hinduism is essentially confined to the Indian subcontinent, showing the spatial restriction characteristic of most ethnic and traditional religions Judaism is an ethnic religion because of its identification with a particular people Extensive areas of the world are peopled by those who practice tribal or traditional religions 6 Human Geography 12e

7 The Principal Religions
Judaism Christianity Regions and landscapes of Christianity Islam Hinduism Buddhism East Asian Ethnic Religions 7 Human Geography 12e

8 Figure 5.20

9 Judaism Ethnic religion Middle East origins Diaspora
Two separate branches of Judaism developed in Europe during the Middle Ages: Sephardim (Iberian Peninsula) Ashkenazim (Eastern Europe) Orthodox -Adhere to a stricter set of beliefs and practices Zionism -The belief in the need to create an autonomous Jewish state in Palestine The Holocaust -Resulted in the murder of perhaps one-third of the world's Jewish population -Fell most heavily upon the Ashkenazim 9 Human Geography 12e

10 Figure 5.21

11 Christianity Universalizing Middle East origins Diffusion Expansion
Hierarchical From provincial capitals to smaller settlements Contagious Relocation Figure 5.23 11 Human Geography 12e

12 Christianity European Imperialism Schism
Divided Medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek) and Western (Roman) branches Protestant Reformation Landscapes of Christianity 12 Human Geography 12e

13 Figure 5.22

14 Figure 5.24

15 Figure 5.25

16 Patterns and Flows Diffusion Insert figure 5.20 16 Human Geography 12e

17 Islam Universalizing Middle East origin Holy book: Koran
Sunni & Shi’ite Sects Followers are expected to observe the five pillars: (1) repeated saying of the basic creed; (2) prayers five times daily at appointed times; (3) a month of daytime fasting during Ramadan; (4) almsgiving; and, (5) if possible, a pilgrimage to Mecca. Two of the five pillars of Islam are explicitly geographical: prayers are done facing Mecca and the pilgrimage to the sacred city of Mecca is among the world's greatest gatherings (Figure 5.26) 17 Human Geography 12e

18 Islam The second-largest world religion (about 1.3 billion adherents)
Significant clusters in the Middle East, North Africa, and South Asia Islam = submission to the will of God Core of Islamic belief = the Five Pillars Two significant branches Sunnis (83 percent) Shias or Shiites (16 percent) Other branches Nation of Islam (Black Muslims) Kharijites Sufis Druzes

19 Figure 5.27

20 Hinduism World’s oldest major religion Ethnic religion
South Asia origins Caste structure of society Reincarnation Karma Numerous reform movements have derived from Hinduism over the centuries, some of which have endured to the present day as major religions on a regional or world scale 20 Human Geography 12e

21 Hinduism The third-largest religion in the world (900 million adherents) 97 percent of Hindus are found in India Many paths to spirituality Many paths to worship God (Brahma) Vishnu (Krishna) Siva Shakti Numerous reform movements have derived from Hinduism over the centuries, some of which have endured to the present day as major religions on a regional or world scale

22 Hinduism Reform Movements:
Jainism, begun in the 6th century B.C. as a revolt against the authority of the early Hindu doctrines, rejects caste distinctions and modifies concepts of karma and transmigration of souls Combining elements of Hinduism and Islam, Sikhism developed in the Punjab area of northwestern India in the late 15th century A.D. Sikhism is an ethnic religion with an estimated 23 million adherents. The great majority of Sikhs live in India, mostly in the Punjab 22 Human Geography 12e

23 Buddhism Universalizing South Asia Origins
Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha Sects Theravada Mahayana Vajrayana Diffusion Sacred places for Buddhists largely associated with key events in the life of the Buddha--many of which are in areas that are no longer predominantly Buddhist 23 Human Geography 12e

24 Buddhism About 400 million adherents (more difficult to quantify than Christianity or Islam) Significant clusters in China, Southeast Asia Founded by Prince Sidhartha Gautama “Buddha” The Four Noble Truths Three branches Mahayana (China, Japan, Korea) Theravada (Southeast Asia) Vajrayana (Tibet, Mongolia)

25 Origin of religions Universalizing: precise origins, tied to a specific founder Christianity Founder: Jesus (8 B.C. – 30 A.D.) Islam Prophet of Islam: Muhammad ( A.D.) Buddhism Founder: Siddhartha Gautama (born 563 B.C.) Sikhism Guru Nanak ( A.D.) Baha’i Faith Siyyid Ali Muhammed “the Bab” (1844 A.D.)

26 Origin of religions Ethnic: unclear or unknown origins, not tied to a specific founder Hinduism No clear founder Earliest use of “Hinduism” = sixth century B.C. Archaeological evidence dating from 2500 B.C. Judaism Moses Abraham – “Father/patriarch of Judaism arrived Canaan 4,000 years ago Judah – one of Jacob’s sons Jacob = “Israel”

27 Holy places In universalizing religions In ethnic religions
Buddhist shrines Lumbini, Bodh Gaya, Sarnath, Kusinagara Holy places in Islam = associated with the life of Muhammad Makkah, Madinah, Jerusalem Holy places in Christianity Jerusalem Holy places in Sikhism Amritsar In ethnic religions Holy places in Hinduism = closely tied to the physical geography of India Varanasi Judaism – Jerusalem

28 East Asian Ethnic Religions
Confucianism (China) Daoism (China) Shinto (Japan)

29 Figure 5.31

30 Belief in God in Europe

31 Belief among Europeans

32 Belief in Evolution

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