Presentation on theme: "Movement to End Apartheid"— Presentation transcript:
1 Movement to End Apartheid South AfricaMovement to End Apartheid
2 African National Congress Founded in 1912.Worked with-in the law to resist ApartheidStrikes, boycotts.The ANC was outlawed in 1960In 1961 became militantPreviously non violentFaced imprisonment and organization was banned.
3 Sharpeville Massacre: March 1960 Demonstration against Pass Laws (internal passport system )PEACEFUL march to Police station and to turn in Passports20,000 person crowdPolice Opened fire on unarmed demonstrators; 69 blacks killed & 180 woundedThe South African Gov’t’s report : the demonstrators shot first & the police were forced to fire in self-defense“State of Emergency” in South Africa DeclaredPolitical meetings bannedCrackdown on Civil Rights
4 General Law Amendment Act (1962) Further Crackdown on resistanceMinimum Five Year Prison Term to maximum of death for Sabotage (Protest)Can remain in prison up to 90 days before questioning processIndefinite Imprisonment without a trial
5 ANC Major Leader Nelson Mandela Born in 1918 / joined ANC in 1944 Launched Economic sabotage campaign after Sharpeville.Arrested and convicted for attempting overthrow government
6 Nelson Mandela (cont.)Used the Sharpeville court case as a platform to express his views on democracy"I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities," "It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die."Sentenced to Life: (18 of the 27 years were on Robben Island)
7 Nelson Mandela (cont.)Robben Island has been used as a prison for 300 years. Seven, shark-infested miles of water separate it from the mainland
8 Robben Island --- Prisoners doing HARD LABOR: crushing rocks Nelson Mandela (cont.)Robben Island --- Prisoners doing HARD LABOR: crushing rocks
10 Soweto Riots (June 1976)Students could no longer accommodate inequality.Under the Bantu Education Act Black schools had been designed to reinforce the social and economic class structure of apartheidTaught how to be subservientForced to learn Afrikaans the language of their oppressorsHow they resistedProtests, Boycotts, DemonstrationsDaily Rioting – 600 students deadSpread throughout South Africa
12 Stephen Biko(1977) – Popular protestor (student leader) beaten to death by police while in custody in Pretoria.His funeral, which was conducted by the Reverend Desmond Tutu, was attended by more than 15,000 mourners.Thousands were barred from attending the services by security forces.Twelve Western countries sent representativesBiko's contribution to the black fight for freedom from apartheid is often placed as second only to that of former President Nelson Mandela
14 Movement becomes more Radical South Africans enraged by a new constitution ANC – dozens of terrorist attacks. (June 1985)South African ResponseGovernment attacked ANC bases in South Africa, Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and BotswanaState of Emergency declared in 1985April 1986 – Repeal of the Pass Laws
16 Bishop Desmond TutuFirst black Anglican Dean of Johannesburg in 1975 & elected Archbishop of Cape Town in 1986While Nelson Mandela was in Prison Archbishop Tutu often spoke out against the regime.Led economic fight against ApartheidNonviolenceCalled for trade restrictions by other countries
17 Bishop Desmond Tutu (cont.) declared “we refuse to be treated as the doormat for the government to wipe its jackboots on”Risked jail by calling for a boycott of municipal elections.
19 Sanctions1985: United States, France, Canada, European Union: limited sanctions on South AfricaWhat had US citizens experienced during the 1950’s 60’s and 70’s ??Civil Rights Movement1986: United States imposed stricter sanctionsPurpose: to isolate and starve the white-monopolized South African economy to the point of collapse.
20 Economic PressureApartheid Became The Moral Issue Of the 1980s On College Campuses Across the United States. Students Urged Their Schools and U.S Businesses To Economically Divest From South Africa To Pressure the South African Government To End Its Racist Rule
21 Economic PressureUnited States Corporations announced they were leaving South AfricaExamples: Coca Cola, General Motors, IBM70 Companies withdrewDesmond Tutu - Won Nobel Peace Prize in 1984 for his effortsDue to the sheer size of the campaign the US government was forced to act as well.
24 President F.W. de Klerk Became President September 1989 Mass Democratic Movement (MDM):1989: MDM led a 2 day General Strike: 3 million Africans participated28 demonstrators killed by policeFebruary 1990 – legalized ANC ANC leaders engaged in negotiations with white leaders which led to the 1994 democratic elections.Nelson Mandela released from prison in February 1990 (Jailed )The ANC is the dominant political party in South Africa, having won more than two-thirds of the vote in the 2004 national elections.
25 End of Apartheid! Meetings between Mandela and de Klerk Four Year “State of Emergency” EndedApartheid RepealedSeparate Amenities Act repealed (1990)
26 More Laws Reversed Land Acts repealed (June 1991) March 1992: Referendum (vote by the people) – dealing with apartheid.Many people wanted to end apartheid (68.6%) Multiracial government1993 de Klerk & Mandela were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts at reform in South AfricaApril 1994: Universal electionsNew Constitution – blacks still did not gain power in government
27 Election of 1994: Election of 1994: Mandela vs. de Klerk Nelson Mandela elected President (with de Klerk as V.P.)1994: Population of South AfricaWhites 16%Blacks 70%Mixed races 11%Asian 3% 1994: 80% of land owned by whites
28 New Constitution: 1996: More democratic Constitution was created Equal rightsBill of RightsDe Klerk stepped down in 1999