Presentation on theme: "Apartheid 1,500 years ago: Bantu migration south 1600’s: 1 st Europeans (Dutch East Indies Company-settle in Cape Town) became known as Afrikaners."— Presentation transcript:
Apartheid 1,500 years ago: Bantu migration south 1600’s: 1 st Europeans (Dutch East Indies Company-settle in Cape Town) became known as Afrikaners (af-rih-KAHN-erz), spoke Afrikaan Others came: British, French, Germans Black South Africans battle with whites 1800’s: White settlers forced Black Africans off the best land.
British and Afrikaners fought for control of Cape Town. British won and outlawed slavery in 1833, but still segregated. Afrikaners moved north and founded states: the Transvaal and Orange Free States (called Voortrekkers) Gold and Diamonds were discovered, and British push Boers off their farms. (Boer Wars 1899-1902) The British took control of South Africa 1910: The Union of South Africa – all colonies united Apartheid
Union of Africa Under the British Natives Act Land of 1913 – blacks could live in only 8% of the country. The rest belonged to whites Blacks could work in white areas – for low wages Blacks could not own land in white areas 1920 – law passed separating black and white workers – highest paying and best jobs went to Whites
Apartheid 1948: An Afrikaner political party (Nationalist Party) won election/took over the country. They added new laws to white power determining where others might live, go to school, and what jobs they may hold. These laws were called Apartheid laws: 1. Blacks (71% of the population) were denied citizenship (could not vote). 2. Access to public facilities were denied/separated (libraries, restrooms, water fountains, etc.) Whites (16%) had all rights, mixed race (10%) some rights, and Asians (3%) had few rights. 3. Separate homelands were set up: located up to three hours away from major cities) according to the record of their origin. 4. Non-whites were required to register (Population Registration Act) and carry “pass books” containing fingerprints, photo and information on access to non- black areas 5. Blacks lost citizenship in South Africa and were citizens in homelands. They needed passports to enter South Africa (aliens in their own country)
Differences Under Apartheid Apartheid and the People of South Africa CategoryBlacksWhites Population19 million4.5 million Share of National Income13 percent87 percent Ratio of average earnings114 Minimum taxable income (1976) 360 rands $432 US 750 rands $900 US Doctors/population1/44,0001/400 Infant mortality rate20% urban 40% rural 2.7% Annual expenditure on education per pupil $45$696 Teacher/pupil ratio1/601/22
Response to Apartheid 1950’s and 60’s: peaceful protests 1953: Public Safety Act 1960’s: African National Congress (ANC) was established, and outlawed by the government 1960: Sharpeville Massacre (69 killed) 1962: Nelson Mandela, former ANC member was arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment.
Response to Apartheid 1970’s: protests grew in force – other countries joined the fight 1974: South Africa expelled from United Nations: 1. Economic sanctions imposed – closing of multinational corporate activity which operated in South Africa, trade and aid restriction, embargo on products made in South Africa 2. Athletes were banned from the Olympic Games and other international sports events for 21 years – until 1991
The End of Apartheid 1990’s: weak economy and continuing protests President F. W. de Klerks passed legislation that tore down apartheid system April 1994 (15 yrs ago): South African Blacks were allowed to vote for first time for their new government ending Apartheid. Nelson Mandela, a black man, was elected President
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission: Created by Mandela and chaired by Archbishop Desmond Tutu. Commission heard testimony by thousands of South Africans involved as victims or perpetrators of crimes under Apartheid. Commission decided on amnesty for those who confessed their crimes and were truthful – advocated reparations for victims, but have not yet been awarded by the government. The End of Apartheid
Ten years: ANC still in power - Africa still remained a divided society – living in different neighborhoods, less paying jobs because whites controlled biggest businesses and newspapers, half of population still lives below the poverty level, political stability and international support, but still two nations – one mostly white and rich, one mostly black and poor, massive unemployment, rising crime and highest rates of HIV in the world (20% of adult population is HIV-positive) – complete overhaul of government services, new constitution grounded in human rights, free press including newspapers, radio and television stations Years after Apartheid