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Chapter 7 Social Control Theory
Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Social Control The key question they try to answer is not, Why do people become criminals? But rather, Why do people not become criminals? Social Control Theory focuses on techniques and strategies that regulate human behavior and lead to conformity, or obedience to society’s rules. Social control theories maintain that all people have the potential to violate the law and that modern society presents many opportunities for illegal activity.
Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Social control theorists argue that people obey the law because behavior and passions are being controlled by internal and external forces. Most people have developed a strong moral sense, which prevents them from violating social norms.
Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Travis Hirschi Social Bonds Travis Hirschi’s social bonding theory may be the most popular criminological theory today. First presented in 1969, Hirschi questioned why people do not commit crime. Hirschi theorized that crime is more common among individuals with weakened bonds to societal institutions.
Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Travis Hirschi Social Bonds Attachment: to parents, teachers, peers - Attachment to parents is the most important - affection deters criminal activities - Strength depends on the depth and quality of parent-child interaction Commitment: to conventional lines of action. - vocational aspirations, educational expectations and aspirations
Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Involvement: with activities that promote the interests of society - A busy person doing conventional things has little time for deviant activities. Belief: consists of assent to the society’s value system - respect of its laws and for the people and institutions that enforce them.
Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Neutralization and Drift Theory David Matza and Gresham Skyes developed neutralization theory. Matza argues that even the most committed criminals and delinquents are not involved in criminality all the time. They drift in and out of conventional and criminal behavior.
Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Neutralization and Drift Theory Guilt and same lie at the center of neutralization theory. To counter guilt or shame, adolescents need to neutralize those feelings by developing at least one of five rationalizations or techniques of neutralization about why it is OK to break the law
Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. David Matza Delinquency and Drift Techniques of neutralization: 1. Denial of Responsibility – behavior is due to forces beyond their control 2. Denial of Injury – no one was hurt 3. Denial of the Victim – they deserved it 4. Condemnation of the Condemner – they made me do it. 5. Appeal to Higher Loyalties – I had no choice.
Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Walter Reckless Containment Theory Containment Theory assumes that for every individual there exists a containing external structure and a protective internal structure, both of which provide defense, protection, or insulation against delinquency.
Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Walter Reckless Containment Theory Reckless suggests that the probability of deviance is directly related to the extent to which internal pushes, and external pulls are controlled by one’s inner and outer containment. The primary containment factor is found in self-concept
Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Containment Theory Outer containment A role that guides a person’s activity Reasonable limits and responsibilities Opportunity to achieve status Cohesion among members of group. Sense of belongingness Inner Containment A good self-concept; Self-control; A strong ego; Well-developed conscience; High frustration tolerance High sense of responsibility
Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Albert J. Reiss Delinquency is the result of 1. a failure to internalize socially accepted and prescribed norms of behavior, 2. a breakdown of internal controls; and 3. a lack of social rules that prescribe behavior in the family, the school, and other important social groups.
Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. General Theory of Crime Travis Hirschi and Michael Gottfredson Designed to explain an individual’s propensity to commit crime Assumes that the offenders have little control over their own behavior and desires Crime is a function of poor self-control
Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Individuals with low self-control tend to be involved in noncriminal events that result in harm such as 1. drinking and smoking 2. And most types of accidents including auto crashes, household fires, and unwanted pregnancies.
Control theories part II
Social Process Theories: Socialized to Crime
Control theories Nye’s theory Matza’ theory Hirschi’s theory Self-control theory.
© 2003 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 8 Social Process Theories: Learning, Control and Reaction Criminology 8 th edition Larry J. Siegel.
Deviance and Social Control Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This multimedia product and its contents are protected under.
Chapter 7 Social Process Theories: Learning, Control and Reaction
Chapter 7 Social Process Theories.
Sociologists & Deviances
Objectives: Explain deviance from a symbolic interactionist perspective. Describing and applying the components of differential association theory, control.
Lesson 7 – Social Process Theories
Control Theories. Fundamentals of Control Theory The Issue: Why are most people not deviant? Hirschi’s views on society and human nature: –Humans are.
Managing a Deviant Identity Attempts at Normalizing primary deviance in the Labeling process When people are judged as deviant, they are expected to explain.
Control Theories Informal Social Control. Assumptions about human nature Humans are hedonistic, self-serving beings We are “inclined” towards deviance.
Social Bond Theory Self-Control Theory
SOCIAL CONTROL THEORY. Why are you NOT delinquent? According to Control Theorists, people do not engage in delinquency because of the controls or restraints.
Exam 1. Testing A Hypothesis Hypothesis: individuals who are committed to performing well will do better on the exam. –My measure of “commitment to theory.
Social Process Theories
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Inc The Meaning of Crime: Social Process Perspective Chapter 9.
AGENDA Review Social Structure Theories Especially Anomie/Strain Theories Start Social Process Theories.
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