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Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Respiratory System A breath of fresh air
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Functions of the Respiratory System Capture oxygen from the air and place it in the bloodstream for distribution to the cells of the animal’s body –All cells in the body require oxygen to live –Works in conjuntion with the circulatory system to distribute oxygen throughout the body Removes Carbon Dioxide
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Types of Respiratory Systems Lungs –Oxygen is inhaled into the lungs from the air –The lungs filter out the Oxygen and passes it to the Red Blood Cells Gills –Water molecules pass over the gills –The gills filter out the Oxygen in the water and passes it to the Red Blood Cells
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Respiratory System The respiratory system is divided into upper and lower tracts The upper respiratory tract consists of the nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, and larynx The lower respiratory tract consists of the trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Respiratory Tract
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Upper Respiratory Tract Air enters and exits the body through the nose –nas/o and rhin/o are combining forms for nose –External openings of the nose area are called nares
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Upper Respiratory Tract The pharynx is the area from the back of the nasal cavity and mouth to the larynx –pharyng/o is the combining form for pharynx –Commonly called the throat
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Tongue Esophagus Trachea Epiglottis Nasal cavity Larynx Pharynx Mouth
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Upper Respiratory Tract The larynx is the area between the pharynx and the trachea –Commonly called the voice box contains the vocal cords Prevents food from entering the Lungs
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Upper Respiratory Tract Trachea –Large air-tube that leads to the lungs Epiglottis –The gate for food and water to travel down the Esophagus, and air into the Trachea
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Lower Respiratory Tract The trachea extends from the neck to the chest and passes air from the larynx to the thoracic cavity –trache/o is the combining form for the trachea –Commonly called the windpipe contains C-shaped cartilaginous rings
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Lower Respiratory Tract The trachea divides into two branches at the tracheal bifurcation to form bronchi –bronch/o is the combining form for bronchi –Bronchus is the singular form of bronchi
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Epiglottis Bronchioles Alveoli Trachea Lungs Larynx Bronchi Cartilage ring
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Lower Respiratory Tract The bronchi continue to get smaller in diameter until they become bronchioles, The location where the Trachea branches to the two lungs –bronchiol/o is the combining form for bronchioles –-ole means small
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Lower Respiratory Tract Alveoli are air sacs where gas exchange occurs, Surrounded by blood vessels; carbon dioxide is removed from blood and oxygen is absorbed into the blood –alveol/o is the combining form for alveoli (small sac) –Oxygen diffuses and carbon dioxide diffuses across the alveolar wall
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Supporting Structures The thoracic cavity is contained within the ribs –cost/o is the combining form for ribs –thorac/o and -thorax both mean chest cavity or chest
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Supporting Structures The lung is the main organ of respiration –The lungs are divided into well-defined divisions called lobes –pneum/o, pneumon/o, and pneu all mean lungs or air –pulm/o and plumon/o mean lung
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Supporting Structures The lung is encased in a membranous sac called the pleura –The pleura has two layers, and between these two layers is the pleural space –pleur/o is the combining form for pleura
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Supporting Structures The diaphragm is the muscle that separates the thoracic and peritoneal cavities –dia- means across –phragm/o is the combining form for wall –diaphragmat/o and phren/o are combining forms for diaphragm
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Supporting Structures Breathing is the inhalation and exhalation of air –Inhalation is the drawing in of a breath –Exhalation is the release of a breath Respiration is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Terms Associated with Breathing The root pnea means breathing ox/i, ox/o, and ox/y refer to oxygen capn/o refers to carbon dioxide apnea dyspnea bradypnea tachypnea hyperpnea hypopnea hypoxia hypercapnia hypocapnia
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Respiratory System Function Brings oxygen from the air into the body and expels carbon dioxide from the body ▫Accomplished by circulatory system.
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