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Respiratory System Jr. / Sr. Anatomy and Physiology Ms. Walstedt.

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Presentation on theme: "Respiratory System Jr. / Sr. Anatomy and Physiology Ms. Walstedt."— Presentation transcript:


2 Respiratory System Jr. / Sr. Anatomy and Physiology Ms. Walstedt

3 Functions Brings oxygen from the air into the body and expels carbon dioxide from the body Accomplished with the help of the circulatory system

4 Upper Respiratory System Consists of the nose, (snout, nostrils, etc) mouth, pharynx, epiglottis and larynx.

5 Vocabulary Mucous membranes: Lining of respiratory tract that secretes mucous Mucus: Slimy secretion that helps to warm, moisten and filter air

6 Vocabulary Cont. Cilia:Tiny wave-like hairs that line the nostrils and help to filter air. Pharynx:Shared by the respiratory and digestive systems Epiglottis:Tiny flap that covers the larynx during swallowing

7 Vocabulary Cont. Larynx:“voice box”, that contains vocal chords that vibrate when air passes through.

8 Lower Respiratory System Trachea:“Windpipe”….. rings of cartilage keep its shape Bronchi:branches at the bottom of the trachea that are contained in the lungs. Singular: Bronchus

9 Lower Respiratory System Cont. Bronchial Tree:Describes how branches of the bronchi get continually smaller, like a tree branch

10 Lower Respiratory Cont. Bronchioles: Smallest branches of the bronchial tree. Alveoli:Grape-like clusters at the ends of the bronchiole. Exchange of gas occurs here

11 Lower Respiratory Cont. Lungs: Paired organs containing bronchi that are divided into clearly defined lobes.

12 Lower Respiratory Cont. Diaphragm: A muscle located below the lungs that contracts causing the lungs to fill with air.

13 Breathing Inhalation: Drawing in of a breath Exhalation: Release of a breath

14 Breathing Apnea: Not breathing Dyspnea: Difficult breathing

15 Breathing Bradypnea: Abnormally slow breathing Tachypnea: Abnormally fast breathing rate

16 Breathing Cont: Respiration: Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in the lungs

17 Inner Workings Trachea is composed of: Fibrous Connective Tissue Smooth Muscle A series of chondral rings that are c-shaped

18 Inner Workings Cont These rings provide: Semi-rigid support for the trachea.

19 Inner Workings Cont. Dorsal Border of trachea is achondral to allow for expansion of esophagus during the passage of food

20 Inner Workings Cont: If the trachea were completely rigid, food would become lodged in the esophagus.

21 Inner Workings Cont: Endotracheal mucosa is made up of:

22 Inner Workings Cont: Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium

23 Inner Workings Cont. At the caudal end of the trachea, is the tracheal bifurcation ( fork in the road)

24 Inner Workings Cont. This marks the end of the trachea and the beginning of the bronchi.

25 Inner workings Cont. Primary bronchi are quite large. Have c-shaped chondral rings like the trachea

26 Inner workings Cont. Secondary bronchi: Next branches, are covered with;

27 Inner Workings Cont. Small irregularly shaped plates They provide structure for complete circumference of the secondary bronchi

28 Inner Workings Cont: Tertiary Bronchi: Airways become smaller Lose more cartilage

29 Inner Workings Cont: Tertiary bronchi: Chondral Plates do not completely surround the airways.

30 Inner Workings Cont: As we progress further: Bronchioles have no cartilage. Composed entirely of:

31 Inner Workings Cont: Smooth muscle Connective Tissue Mucous membranes are Cuboidal epithelium

32 Inner Workings Cont: Terminal bronchioles lead to: Alveolar ducts

33 Inner Workings Cont: Alveolar Ducts: Portals to the alveoli

34 Inner Workings Cont. Alveoli: Delicate clusters of sacs composed of :

35 Inner Workings Cont: Simple squamous epithelium.

36 Inner Workings Cont. Each alveoli is surrounded by a dense network of capillaries. This is where the gas exchange occurs

37 Lung Lobe Variation Most domestic animals have the configuration of the cat………..

38 Lung Lobe Variation Cranial Middle Caudal All these are bilateral along with an accessory lung dorsocaudal to the heart

39 Lung Lobe Variation The exception is the horse:……they only have right and left lung lobes

40 Inner Workings Cont. Pleural Cavity: Term for thoracic cavity. Called this due to the tissue that lines the cavity and covers the viscera.

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