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Structure of the Respiratory system

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Presentation on theme: "Structure of the Respiratory system"— Presentation transcript:

1 Structure of the Respiratory system

2 Respiratory system works with Cardiovascular system
Intakes oxygen Releases carbon dioxide waste Circulatory system: Transports gases in blood between lungs and cells

3 Respiratory system anatomy

4 Task… In order to gain a head start on the assessment you guys need to find a blank picture of the respiratory system and be able to label the following: nasal cavity; epiglottis; pharynx; larynx; trachea; bronchus; bronchioles; lungs (lobes, pleural membrane, thoracic cavity, visceral pleura, pleural fluid, alveoli); diaphragm; intercostal muscles (external and internal)

5 The Importance of the RS
If respiratory system and/or circulatory system fails, death will occur Cells need O2 for work; release CO2 as a waste product Accumulation of excess CO2 is toxic to cells and MUST be removed

6 Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained
Nasal cavity Space above and behind the nose Made of cartilage and bone Divided into 2 by a cartilaginous septum Hairs within the nostrils filter out dust etc before air passes into two nasal cavities. Designed to warm, moisten, and filter air before it passes to the nasopharynx A mucous layer Pharynx – (throat) Funnel shaped Connects to larynx and oesophagus Small muscular tube conducts food and air exchanges air with Eustachian tube to equalize pressure

7 Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained
Epiglottis flap of cartilage that covers trachea ensures food travels down the esophagus Larynx – (voice box) Connects the pharynx and the trachea. Made of cartilage and muscle contains vocal cords Helps us to speak nasal cavity pharynx larynx

8 Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained
larynx trachea bronchi bronchioles Trachea – (windpipe) Tubular passageway (12 cm long 2 cm diameter) to carry air towards the lungs C-shaped cartilage rings to keep it open Divides at end into : Bronchi

9 Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained
Bronchi Pair of tubes that branch from trachea and enter lungs Have cartilage plates to keep them open Lining is ciliated & secretes mucus By now air is warm, moist and free from most impurities Each bronchi divides into Lobar bronchi Segmental bronchi 23 branches in total Tree

10 Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained
Bronchioles – tiny tubes extend from the bronchi lacking cartilage and cilia possess smooth muscle bronchiole smooth muscle They about 1mm diameter Terminate in clusters of alveoli

11 Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained
Lungs Two cone shaped organs suspended in the pleural cavities Surrounded by a pleural membrane Made of elastic tissue Divide into lobes Right is larger as left has to accommodate the heart This space is known as the cardiac notch

12 Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained
Lungs - lobes Each lung is divided into lobes. The right lung has three lobes The left lung has only 2 lobes.

13 Pleural Fluid Pleural membrane Visceral Pleura
Is the innermost of the two pleural membranes. It covers the surface of the lung Pleural membrane The lungs are surrounded by membranes known as pleura These contain a cavity with fluid that lubricates the surfaces as the lungs expand and contract. Their main job is to prevent friction and keep the lungs airtight, Pleural Fluid The pleural membrane produces pleural fluid, which fills the space between the visceral and parietal pleura. This lubricating fluid allows the lungs to glide over one another easily.

14 Thoracic Cavity This is the full name for the chamber of the chest that is protected by the thoracic wall. It is protected from the abdominal cavity by the diaphragm

15 Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained
Alveoli Around the bronchioles are 600 million alveoli in each lung. Each one is in contact with a capillary This is where exchange of O2 and CO2 takes place.

16 Alveoli Provide a huge area for gas exchange
Cup shaped structures that resemble bunches of grapes covered with SURFACTANT that keep them from collapsing Provide a huge area for gas exchange

17 Respiratory Muscles Intercostal muscles Diaphragm
External intercostals Contract to pull the rib cage up when we breathe in Internal intercostals Contract to pull the rib cage down when we breathe out Attach between the ribs Diaphragm Dome shaped muscle at the bottom of the ribcage Breathing in - Contracts – flattens, making chest cavity larger and drawing air in.

18 Anatomy of the Respiratory system…
Air enters through the Mouth & Nose. Passes through the Pharynx (back of throat). Passes through the Larynx (responsible for your voice production). Air passes over the Epiglottis (stops food going down our windpipe/trachea). Air enters the Trachea, membranous tube that delivers air to the lungs. Trachea divides into 2 Bronchi, one into each lung. 2 main Bronchi divide into Bronchioles, which further subdivide 23 times into 8 million bronchioles in each lung. Around the Bronchioles you will find groups of air sacs called Alveoli (600 million in each lung). Alveoli are the catalyst for gas exchange (O2 and CO2), as they are in contact with the capillaries.

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