Presentation on theme: "Rhetorical Analysis Using a process to analyze language and composition for AP preparation Adapted from wiki books online article on Rhetoric and Composition."— Presentation transcript:
Rhetorical Analysis Using a process to analyze language and composition for AP preparation Adapted from wiki books online article on Rhetoric and Composition
Rhetorical analysis vs. Review Do not confuse these two… Both thoroughly analyze a text Major difference –Reviewer critiques how “good” or “bad” content is –Rhetorical analysis reserves judgment on whether analyzer agrees/disagrees with topic Sole goal in rhetorical analysis: analyze author’s writing –How did author craft his/her argument?
Ethos, Pathos, Logos A good argument will combine all three. Examine an argument with the assumption all three are being employed (some more strongly than others)
LOGOS Logic or rational argument Inductive reasoning –Takes specific case or facts then draws conclusions or generalizations from them –Must be based on a sufficient reliable evidence Deductive reasoning –Begins with generalization and applies to specific case –Generalization you start with must be based on sufficient amount of reliable evidence
PATHOS Appeals to an audience’s needs and/or values – highly emotional. Can use interviews or individual stories to illuminate the truth. Writer must use care not to employ emotional appeals that distract from the crux of the debate, argument, or point trying to be made.
ETHOS Gives the author credibility. Using credible sources builds reader’s trust. Can destroy own credibility by attacking opponent or opposing viewpoint. Most effective ethos develops from what is said, not simply who is saying it.
Critical Reading Important first step in rhetorical analysis After reading, use these questions to guide you…
1. What is the subject? Subject matter? Scope? Personal associations? Controversial?
2. What is the thesis? Effective argument centers on a clear thesis. Main body of an argument, however long or divided, should be continually moving towards proving the thesis in the reader’s mind. Good writers will often unveil their thesis early on to prepare the audience.
3. Who is the intended audience? Determine for whom this argument was written. Consider the values and beliefs the audience was likely to hold even before reading the argument. Also consider assumptions held by the audience.
4. What is the tone of the text? What is your reaction to the text? Was your reaction emotional or rational? Does this reaction change throughout the text? Pay attention to diction choices.
5. What is the writer’s purpose? Inform? Anger? Explain? Persuade? Amuse? Motivate? Sadden? Ridicule? Attack? Defend? Is there more than one purpose? Does the purpose shift at all throughout the text?
6. What methods does the writer use to develop his/her ideas? Narration? Definition? Description? Comparison? Analogy? Cause and effect? Example? Why does the author use these methods? Do these methods help in his/her development of ideas?
7. What pattern does the author use for the arrangement of ideas? Particular to general? Broad to specific? Spatial? Chronological? Alternating? Block? Does the format enhance or detract from the content? Does it help the piece along or distract from it?
8. Does the writer use adequate transitions to make the text unified and coherent? Do you think the transitions work well? In what ways do they work well?
9. Are there any patterns in sentence structure that make the writer’s purpose clear to you? What are these patterns like if there are some? Parallelism? Fragments or run-ons?
10. Are there any dialogues and/or quotations used in the text? What is the effect of the dialogues or quotes? For what purpose were they used?
11. In what way does the writer use diction? Is the language emotionally evocative? Does the language change throughout the piece? How does the language contribute to the writer’s aim?
12. Is there anything unusual in the writer’s punctuation? What punctuation or other techniques of emphasis (italics, capitals, underlining, ellipses, parentheses) does the writer use? Is punctuation over- or under-used? Which marks does the writer use where, and to what effect?
13. Are there any repetitions of important terms throughout the text? Are the repetitions effective? Do they detract from the text in any way?
14. Does the writer present any particularly vivid images? Which images stand out? What is the effect of these images on the writer’s purpose?
15. Are there any tropes employed by the writer? Similes? Metaphors? Personification? Hyperbole? Comparisons? Contrasts? Etc. When does he/she use them? For what reason(s)? Are the devices used to convey or enhance meaning?
16. Are there any other devices used in the text? Humor? Wordplay? Irony? Sarcasm? Understatement? Parody? If so, what is the effect? –Pleasure? –Hysteria? –Ridicule?
17. Is there any information about the background of the author? Is the writer an acceptable authority on the subject? How do you know?