2 At the end you should be able to: Identify and understand a writer’s reason for writing a particular article or book.Recognize or find manipulation, straightforwardness, or communicating information in a variety of ways.Understand why writers make the decisions they do—from the largest decisions about what information to present to the smallest details of what words to use.So how do we figure out what the author’s intentions are?
3 What is Analysis?It means that you are going to take apart a particular passage and divide it into its basic components for the purpose of examining how the writer develops his or her subject.Examples of Analysis: structure, purpose, and style.In the past you’ve done this for literature. Now, you’ll learn how to do it through non-fiction.
4 What is Rhetoric?Umbrella term for all strategies, modes, and devices a writer can use to allow the reader to easily accept and understand his or her point of view.
5 Theories, Ideas, and Words You SHOULD Already Know! InventionArrangementStyle, voice, & dictionExpository*DescriptionSensory DetailsProse*Process*Define*Summarize*Compare and Contrast*Analysis*Classification*NarrationArgumentation*ExamplesNon-Fiction*Cause and EffectFigurative LanguageModes of discourseActivity: Look at all the words and write down a number. How many of these do you know or could explain?Words with * are identified as modes of discourse or rhetorical strategiesBeing familiar with the professional terminology of this course is a way of beginning to develop a common vocabulary needed to discuss writing.
6 What is Discourse? “Conversation” Author vs. Reader (aka “the text”) To communicate with the reader, the writer uses a particular method or combination of methods to make his or her idea(s) clear to the reader.ToneIn Speech, Discourse = Code SwitchingSimply put: Discourse means conversation.For the writer, this “Conversation” takes place between the text and the reader.Up to this point, you know this as Tone and/or Main Idea
7 What is Mode of Discourse? Four Categories:Exposition: illustrates a pointNarration: tells a storyDescription: creates a sensory imageArgumentation: takes a position on an issue and defends it.You should be able to distinguish between them.
8 What are Rhetorical Strategies? Basic approaches a writer uses totell a storyexplain a pointdescribe a situationargue a position.For Example: examples, contrast and comparison, definition, cause and effect, process, analysis/division, and classificationaka Modes of discourseThe idea being that when you read non-fiction text you should be able to clearly find the author’s purpose and choice of tone in writing the piece. This can only be done if you understand what the writers intentions were.Rhetorical strategies are a two way street: You read to understand and they write to communicate, all of which, is done rhetorically.
10 3 Most Popular Rhetoric Devices for Effective Tone and Message Delivery Ethos: credibility (or character) of the speaker. Does it deserve credit or trust?Pathos: emotional connection to the audience. Does it move you, captivate you, or inspire you?Logos: logical argument; defends claims and points. Does it make sense?
11 ETHOSTrustworthiness Does your audience believe you are a good person who can be trusted to tell the truth?Similarity Does your audience identify with you?Authority Do you have formal or informal authority relative to your audience?Reputation How much expertise does your audience think you have in this field?
12 Pathos: Delivering Emotion Themes and PointsWordsAnalogies and MetaphorsStoriesHumorVisualsDeliveryTechniques
13 LogosMake it Understandable! Can your audience understand you? Or have they only absorbed half of your points?Make it Logical. Do your arguments make sense? Or do you require your audience to make an extreme leap of faith? How easy is it for your audience to connect the dots?Make it Real. Concrete and specific tends to win over abstract and general.
14 Play Commercials and use your notes: Guess is it Ethos, Pathos, or Logos Pathos: VolkswagonEthos: All StatePathos: Ikea Winter SalePathos: Sarah McLaughlinLogos: BMWEthos: Mac
15 Analysis of Rhetorical Structure? Step By StepStep 1:Read the passage.Step 2:Recognize and identify the rhetorical strategies being used. (Use your notes to help you).Step 3:Answer WHY? Why has the author written this? Author’s purpose.Step 4:Answer HOW? By what methods? Mode of Discourse.Step 5:Is it effective? Does the tone and words they’ve chosen make their communication effective and/or successful? Understand why? Ethos, Pathos, LogosHW: Create a diagram to help you remember the steps of rhetorical structure.HW: Find examples of published pieces of writing, including books, magazine articles, newspaper articles, and college bulletins or handbooks. Categorize and discuss the purposes of each.HW: Find a commercial or magazine advertisement that plays to logos, pathos, or ethos.HW: Video project (PSA). Choose a product, service, or advocate a cause using logos, pathos, and ethos.