7 Rhetorical Situation: Audience To write effectively, you MUST consider your audience…their age, gender, educational level, state of emotion, beliefs, needs, experiences, biases, on and on and on….In this case, your audience isyour parent(s).
9 Rhetorical Situation: Purpose This is your desired outcome. What do you want your audience to do, feel, believe, etc. after they’ve read your writing?For our example, your purpose is to have your privileges reinstated.
11 Appeals: LogosSupporting your argument using logical reasoning, concrete examples, data, cause & effect statements, comparisons & analogies, etc.“I now know the consequences of sneaking out, so I will not do it again.”“You are wasting money each week paying insurance on my car to sit in the driveway.”“You can’t get ahold of me quickly without my phone.”
12 The central appeal of any strong argument must be logical. Appeals: LogosThe central appeal of any strong argument must be logical.
14 Appeals: EthosUsing YOUR CREDIBILITY to convince your audience; your good reputation, honor, education, experience, dependability, etcWhat is it about you that makes your audience believe your argument?“Mom, you know I have never done anything like this before, and I have never lied to you.”
17 Appeals: PathosAn attempt to persuade the reader through their emotionsfear, love, pride, shame, pity, etc. are strong motivators“You never trust me. I try and try and try to please you, but you never give me a second chance!”
18 Appeals: PathosAn attempt to persuade the reader through their emotions
21 Organization/Structure/Form You consider which “angle” you’re going to come from first, and second, and then what you’ll say at the end to “sinch” your appeal.Always work chronologically when analyzing a piece of literature; you cannot identify shifts in tone and other elements if you don’t look at it chronologically.
22 On the surface of the paper…it’s the words, phrases and images you create to make your argument. Surface Features
23 Surface Features: Diction Diction is word choice intended to convey a certain effectdenotation is the literal dictionary definition of a wordconnotation includes an emotional “implied” meaningHouse / HomeSkinny / ThinCheap / FrugalPolice / Cops
24 Surface Features: Syntax The arrangement and order of words in a sentence
25 Surface Features: Syntax Sentence StructureShort sentences are often emphatic, passionate, or flippantLonger sentences often suggest the writer’s thoughtful responseArrangement of Ideas in a SentenceAre they set out in a particular way for a purpose?Arrangement of Ideas in a Paragraph- Is there evidence of any pattern or structure?
26 Surface Features: Imagery & Figurative Language The use of language to appeal to the sensesSimile, metaphorAllusionAlliterationHyperbole