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Parts of the plant and their functions

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Presentation on theme: "Parts of the plant and their functions"— Presentation transcript:

1 Parts of the plant and their functions

2 Importance of plants Without plants life on earth would not exist

3 Plants: Primary source of food for people and animals Produce oxygen
help to keep us cool renew the air

4 Plants: slow wind speed provide a home for wildlife
beautify surroundings perfume the air furnish building materials and fuel

5 Parts of a plant *Four basic parts *leaves *stems *roots *flowers

6 Leaves the food factory of the plant
*produce the food used by the plant or stored for later use

7 Shape and size of leaves
vary among plants used for identification of plants

8 Leaf arrangement *alternate *opposite *whorled
arranged in a circle around the stem

9 External leaf structure
*petiole - leaf stalk *leaf blade (leaf) has veins forms structural framework of the leaf

10 Midrib *large center vein from which all other leaf veins extend

11 Margins *edges of leaves assists in plant identification

12 Internal leaf structure
*epidermis skin of the leaf single layer of cells protects leaf from loss of too much moisture

13 Guard Cells open and close the small pore on the underside of the leaf

14 Stomates *allow the plant to breathe and transpire *give off moisture

15 Chloroplasts *contain chlorophyll *located inside the cells

16 Photosynthesis process by which CO2 and H2O in the presence of light are converted to sugar and oxygen

17 Chemical formula 6CO2 + 6H2O
-----> in reaction with sunlight and chlorophyll > C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2

18 food *manufactured in the leaves moves downward through the stem to the roots used by the plant stored in stem or root and leaf in the form of sugar, starch or protein.

19 Respiration *plants respire 24 hours a day consume O2 and give off CO2
plants produce more O2 through ps. Than they consume during respiration and growth.

20 Stems *have two main functions
*movement of water and minerals from the roots upward and movement of manufactured food down

21 Stem functions *support of leaves and reproductive structures

22 Stems also *used for food storage and reproduction of plants involving cuttings *Green stems manufacture food just as leaves do

23 Internal Stem Structure
*phloem- bark, carries manufactured foods down. *Xylem- wood, carries water and minerals up. *Cambium- separates the 2 and produces all new cells. *Characteristic of dicots

24 Internal Stem Structure
*dicot- dicotyledon, a plant with 2 seed leaves

25 Monocot *Monocotyledon - a plant with one seed leaf.
*Have vascular bundles, contain both xylem and phloem in each small bundle

26 Monocot stems have no cambium
cells enlarge to create size of mature stem

27 Economic Importance food building materials

28 Roots *Usually underground *functions: *anchor plant and hold upright
*absorb water and minerals form soil and conduct to stem *store food, & propagation

29 Root Structure internal similar to stems
older roots have xylem, phloem and cambian

30 external root cap produces continuous supply of new cells
protects roots as they push through soil

31 Structure *root hairs *absorb moisture and minerals *small roots

32 Functions other than water and mineral absorption
*cash crops for food carrots beets radishes sweet potatoes propagation

33 Type of root systems *fibrous- grasses *easier transplanting
*shorter, smaller, more compact tap root- carrot *longer and fewer roots



36 Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds
pollination- color of flower attracts insects to fertilize flower beginning of fruit and seed formation fruits and seed are attractive to birds who eat and spread seeds. Reproduces plant some seeds carried on animals coats

37 Parts of the Flower differ in size, shape, and color, some basic parts
sepal green leaf-like part, covers and protects bud before opening

38 Petals are actually leaves
usually bright colors to attract pollinating insects.

39 Parts of the Flower stamens male part of flower has two parts

40 Anther anther- sac-like structure on top of filament, contains pollen

41 Parts of the Flower Pistil - female part in the center of flower
has three parts

42 Pistil three parts stigma - top - sticky
style - tube leading from stigma to ovary

43 Ovary egg cells develop here grows to become fruit or seedcoat

44 Types of Flowers complete contains 4 main parts

45 Incomplete does not have all 4 main parts

46 Perfect has stamens and pistils

47 Imperfect lacks stamens or pistils

48 Types of Flowers monoecious
stamens and pistils are found in separate flowers on the same plant ex: Corn

49 dioecious male or staminate flowers found on one plant, female or pistilate flowers on another plant ex: holly

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