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Plant Structure and Function

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Structure and Function"— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Structure and Function

2 What’s the Difference?

3 What In This Unit What makes plant cells work?
What’s the difference between plant and animal cells What’s inside of plants cells The breakdown of Stems, Roots, Leaves and Flowers

4 For cells in a plant to multiply or enlarge a plant must have the following:
Carbon dioxide, water, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and trace elements.

5 Plants & Animals There are basically two differences between plants and animals. Plant have the ability to make their own food.

6 The second difference is in their respiration.
Plants take in carbon dioxide and give off oxygen.

7 Plant Cells

8 Plant cells consist of the following:
Cell Wall: non-continuous structure surrounding the plasma membrane

9 Vacuole: cavity in the cytoplasm filled with cell water
Cytoplasm: total protoplasm in the cell except the cell nucleus Mitochondrion: breaks down compounds for the cell

10 Nucleus: a small round body that contains the nucleolus and chromosomes.

11 Plant Tissue Systems Meristematic Tissue: This is growth tissue where cell division and enlargement occur and is found near the tips of roots and stem buds.

12 Simple Tissues Epidermal tissue: This tissue is one-cell thick and forms the outer layer of flowers, leaves, and many types of fruits.

13 Parenchyma tissue: This tissue comprises the fleshy part of fruits, roots, and tubers.
Its ,main function is to store food and water.

14 Complex Tissue Xylem tissue: This tissue is called “wood” in vascular plants. Its principal functions are to conduct water and support the plant

15 Phloem tissue: This tissue also conducts material in the plant and gives the plant support.
Its main function is to transfer food from the leaves to other parts of the plant

16 Parts of The Plant

17 The Plant Roots The function of the plant’s roots are to absorb nutrients and water from the soil and to anchor the plant. The root system can makeup 50% of a plants weight.

18 There are two types of root systems soilless roots which include aerial (ivy), and aquatic(water lily). Soilborne roots are classified into tap and fibrous roots.

19 Tap roots are those roots which have a long main root such as a carrot or pine tree.
Fibrous roots spread out such as grass

20 Parts of the Root At the tip is the roots cap, where cell division occurs and it pushes down into the soil. Root hairs are used to help take in nutrients

21 The Plant Stem The major function of the stem is to join the root and leaf systems. Some photosynthesis also takes place in the stem.

22 Parts of the Stem Node- jointed part of the stem on which leaf or flower buds develop Internode- major part of the stem between the nodes.

23 Axillary Bud- bud found at the leaf axil from which flowers and branches arise.
Terminal Bud- tip or end of the shoot were growth takes place.

24 Petiole- is a stem-like leaf structure that attaches the leaf to the stem

25 Woody Stems Outerbark- protects the interior of the plant from insects and diseases and excessive heat and cold. Innerbark- carries food manufactured in leaves to the branches, trunk, and roots

26 Cambium- layer of cells between the bark and wood where growth is diameter occur and the formation of annual rings.

27 Sapwood(xylem)- carries sap from the roots to the leaves
Heartwood- is inactive sapwood which is darker in color and gives strength to the plant

28 Pith- is the dark center in the heartwood core.

29 Leaves Leaves are the food factory of the plant producing all food that is used by the plant and stored for later use by the plant or by an animal. Leaves vary in shape and size; with most of them being flat The arrangement of the leaves differ alternate, opposite, whorled,

30 External Leaf Structures
The petiole is the stalk that attaches the leaf to the stem The blade which is the flat part of the leaf The midrib which is the large center vein from which all veins extend The margins which are the edges of the leaf

31 Internal Leaf Structures
The skin of the leaf is called the epidermis which is a single layer of cells. The epidermis provides protection from water loss. The guard cells open and close a small space or pore on the underside of the leaf called the stoma The stoma allows the plant to transpire. This gives off moisture and exchange of gases.

32 In the inner part of the leaf are the chloroplast
In the inner part of the leaf are the chloroplast. The chloroplast are filled with chlorophyll which give the leaf it’s green color. With the use of chlorophyll , minerals, sugars sunlight and carbon dioxide the plant goes through photosynthesis

33 The formula for photosynthesis is the following:
6CO2 + 6 H2O Kcals (light energy) = C6H12O6 (Glucose) + O2

34 Flower The purpose of the flower is the reproduction of the plant. This can be done through fruits and seed. The reason flowers are colorful is to attract insects for pollination

35 Parts of the Flower The sepals are the green leaflike part of the flower located at the base and are used to protect the flower bud. The petals are actually leaves and are the most striking part of the flower The stamen makes up the male reproductive part of the plant. This includes the anther which holds the pollen. The filament is the slender stalk that holds the anther

36 The pistil is the female reproductive part of the flower
The pistil is the female reproductive part of the flower. This includes the stigma which is sticky and catches the pollen, the style which is a long tube that carries to the ovary, the ovary is where the egg is produced.

37 A complete flower has both male and female parts
An incomplete flower contains only one of the parts

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