8 Electric charges: tiny particles that carry units of electricity Energy charges that are the same: like chargesEnergy charges that are different: unlike chargesMost matter is electrically neutral, which means matter has an equal # of positive and negative chargesLike charges =Unlike charges =repel; they push away from each otherattract; they pull toward each other
9 Unlike charges attract Like charges repel Why does this happen?
12 Static electricity: an electric charge that build up on a material Example:When running a comb through your hair ( charge)Negative particles combYour hair loses charge and now has charge.The comb gains charges and now has charge.Your hair and comb now have unlike charges. They attract each other.Each hair on your head now has a like charge. They repel each other.
14 How charges moveThe build-up of electrical particles is called static electricity.The constant flow of electric charges is called electric current. This energy can be controlled and used.electricalcurrent
15 Conductors & Insulators Negatively charged particles move easily through materials called conductors. Electric current passes easily through some metals. Copper and silver are good conductors.Materials that electric charges do not flow through easily are called insulators. Materials such as plastic and rubber are good insulators.Conductors and insulators are used to control and direct electric flow.
17 Circuits & SwitchesThe pathway that an electric current follows is called an electric circuit. A circuit is a closed pathway. This closed, or complete pathway, has no gaps or openings.If there is an opening, we call that an open circuit, or incomplete circuit.
18 Most circuits have a switch that opens and closes the circuit. When you flip the switch on, you close the circuit. The light bulb turns on.When you flip the switch off, you open the circuit. The light bulb goes off.
19 Every working circuit has at least 3 parts: A power source (battery)A conductor ( usually wire)An object to use electrical current
20 2 Types of Circuits – Series & Parallel Circuits A circuit can have many parts. It can have a switch or have more than one object using the electric current.Series Circuit: a circuit with parts connected so the electric current passes through each part along a single path.If you remove a part from the circuit, you create an opening. Current will no longer move through any of the parts.
21 Parallel Circuit: a circuit where parts are connected so that the electric current passes along >1 pathway.If you remove one part from the circuit , current still moves through other parts.
22 What type of circuit would you want for Christmas tree lights? seriesparallelsimple circuitsimple circuit with a switch
23 Circuits Draw, label, and color these circuits in your IN. Simple Circuit with SwitchSeries CircuitParallel CircuitSwitch on – close the circuit; light onSwitch off – open the circuit; light offremove a part -no currentremove a part - current still moves;>1 pathway
24 Some electric objects run on batteries Some electric objects run on batteries. A battery is made up of one or more electric cells.Electric cell: an object that changes chemical energy into electrical energy.