# Present perfect simple vs. Present perfect continuous

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Present perfect simple vs. Present perfect continuous
Form and Use Touchstone 3 Unit 10

1. Present perfect simple
1. Form: a. Affirmative statements: [S + has/have + V3] e.g., I/ You/ We/ They have (-’ve) swum . He/She/It has (-’s) drunk coffee. b. Negative statements: [S + has/have + not + V3] e.g., They have not (haven’t) arrived yet. She has not (hasn’t) played with us. c. Questions: [(Question word) + has/have + S + V3?] e.g., How often have you visited Jordan? Has he tried sailing this year?

2. Use: Use the present perfect simple to show the result of an activity or how many times it has happened. e.g., - I have watched 3 movies so far. - She hasn’t written any letters yet. - I’ve made a vase in pottery class. Use the present perfect simple for an indefinite time in the past. e.g., - How many times has she gone there? She has gone there twice/three times… Use the present perfect to emphasize the completion of an action in at indefinite time. e.g. – They’ve never traveled outside Saudi Arabia. - He’s done his homework.

3. Time expressions: 1.Yet: It can be used in questions and negative statements to talk about things that are expected: e.g., - I haven’t seen him yet. (I plan to see him. I’m sure I will.) - Has he visited them yet?. ( I imagine he wants to visit them and is maybe planning to.) Yet can also be used as short response: e.g., - No, not yet. (I haven’t yet is also possible).

2. Already: It means “at an earlier time” or “before now”. It is used (in this lesson) in affirmative statements. It can go between “have” and the (V3) or at the end of the sentence. e.g., - I have already seen it. - I have seen it already. 3. Still: It means that the situation continues, and that this may be surprising. It is used in negative statements in the lesson. It goes between the subject and “have”. e.g., - I still haven’t seen him. (I want to see him, but I haven’t seen him yet.)

4. There are other expressions like:
So far >> I have eaten 2 sandwiches so far. Just >> I have just finished my work. Ever ( in questions) >> Have you ever drunk vinegar? How many times (How often) >> How many times have you swum in the Red Sea? Twice, three times, four times, many times…. >> I have seen him three times.

2. Present Perfect Continuous
1. Form: Affirmative statements: [ S + has/have + been + V-ing] e.g., - He’s been working late since then. - They’ve been walking for hours. b. Negative statements: [S + has/ have + not + been + V-ing] e.g., - They haven’t been going to the gym lately. - She hasn’t been doing much in months. c. Questions: [(WH word) + Has/ Have + S + been + V-ing?] e.g., - What have you been doing lately? - Have you been working late all nights?

2. Use: Use the present perfect continuous for an ongoing activity that started before now and continues into the present. It emphasizes duration of time rather than the result. e.g., - What have you been doing lately? I’ve been going to a pottery class. - What has she been doing? She has been reading a novel since 5:00 p.m. - How long has he been doing karate? He’s been doing it for nine years. We can use it to show the side effect of a completed action. e.g., A: Why are you so wet? B: I have been washing the car. (side effect: I became wet when I was washing the car. It does not matter whether the car is clean now.)

3. Time expressions since:
It is used with points in time. It introduces both phrases and clauses: e.g., - We have been playing since 1995. ……………………….… since October. …………………… since you travelled. 2. For: It is used with periods of time: e.g., - I’ve been doing karate for 2 months. ………………………… for 3 years. ………………………… for a couple of weeks. 3. In: It can be used with periods of time in negative statements: e.g., I haven’t been doing karate in months. ………………………………. In years. 4. How long: It ask about duration: e,.g., How long have you been doing karate? I’ve been doing it since 2003.

Grammar Tips With some verbs ( e.g., live, work, teach), there is a little difference in meaning between present perfect simple and present perfect continuous: e.g., How long have you been living here? (= How long have you lived here?) 2. Non action verbs (e.g., like, love, be, know, understand, have) are not normally used in the continuous and so they are usually used in the simple forms. e.g., - How long have you known him? (Not: How long have you been knowing him?) 3. To express the idea of duration from the past until now, present perfect forms, not the simple present or resent continuous, are used. e.g., - I have been playing football for 2 hours. (from the past until now) - I’m playing football for two hours. (in the future I’m going to play football for 2 hours.)

Practice Put the verbs into the correct tense (Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Progressive) I (play) ………………..  football for five years. have been playing 2. My team (win)………..………  two matches so far. have won 3. The others (be / already)  ………………… better. have already been 4. We (cover) ………………….  an area of five miles so far. have covered 5. I (finish/just) …………………  my homework. have just finished 6. I (work) ………………..  on this essay since two o'clock. have been working

7. Jane (go out) ………………  with Bob for seven years.
has been going out 8. Martin (date) ………………..  three girls this week. has dated 9. How long (wait / you) …………………  for us? have you been waiting 10. How long (love/he) …………………. her? has he loved 11. I (not/go/still) ………………………… to the mall. still haven’t gone 12. Why are you so dirty? – Well, I ( play) ………………. football. have been playing 13. I (watch) ………… TV since 3:00. I (watch) ……….. 2 movies. have been watching have watched

14. A: (you / play / ever) ………………………….  tennis? Have you ever played B: I (play / only) ……………………..  tennis once or twice. And you? have only played A: I (learn) ……………………  tennis for two years. have been learning B: (you / take) …………………………  part in any competitions yet? Have you taken A: I (participate) ……………….……..  in four contests this year. have participated B: (you / win) ………………………  any prizes so far? Have you won A: No, I (win / not) ………………………  anything yet. I'm not that good yet. (you / enter / ever) haven’t won ……………………..  a contest? Have you entered B: I (swim) ………………  for seven years and I (receive / already) …………………….  some trophies. have been swimming I have already received Good Luck T.Samer Al-Bzoor