1.Use the present perfect with for and since to talk about things that started in the past, continue up to the present and may continue into the future. Tom has attended Mt. SAC for six months. Tom has taken classes since February. Note: He started attending Mt. SAC six months ago, he is still attending Mt. SAC, and he may continue going to Mt. SAC in the future.
2. Use the present perfect when you don’t know when something happened or when the specific time is not important. He looks familiar. I’m sure I’ve seen him before but I don’t remember when or where. I’ve decided to eat healthier meals.
Present Perfect Progressive have + been + Present Participle has Present Participle: working, eating….
Present Perfect Progressive I You have (not) We ‘ve They been working. He She has (not) It ‘s
Use the present perfect progressive to talk about situations that started in the past and continue up to the present. These situations are usually not finished and they will probably continue into the future. It has been raining since 6:00. (It started raining at 6:00 and it’s still raining now.)
Note: T he present perfect or the present perfect progressive can be used with verbs such as live, work, study and teach with for and since and the meaning is the same. He’s studied ESL for a year. He’s been studying ESL for a year.
Note: The present perfect or the present perfect progres- sive can be used to talk about things that happened in a period of time that is not finished, such as today, this morning (afternoon, evening, week, month, year, summer, semester) I’ve had two cups of coffee this morning. (It’s still morning. I might have more coffee.) We’ve been studying hard this semester.
Present Perfect and Present Perfect Progressive Differences
1. Present Perfect finished activity I’ve written my report. (I finished the report) Present Perfect Pro. unfinished activity unfinished activity I’ve been writing my report. (I’m still writing it.)
2. Present Perfect how many times Jane has gone to Asia and Europe three times. how many things Jane’s visited two conti- nents and four countries. Present Perfect Prog how long Jane’s been traveling around the world since June. Jane has been traveling for the past 10 years.
Time clauses with since Since + S + Simple Past S V You haven’t changed since you won the lottery. main clause time clause Since you left me, I’ve been crying day after day.
Time Markers 1. for: Use for + length of time: for a week, for many years, for an hour They’ve been dating for a year. I haven’t seen Tony for a while.
2. since Use since + specific time: since 1945, since Sunday, since June Alan’s been living here since last year. Victor hasn’t visited his family since May.
3. already It is used to say that something has happened before now. Mike has already applied for this job. Jennifer has finished her report already. It is used in questions to show surprise that something happened sooner than expected. Has Nicole already gotten married?
4. not …yet It is used to say that something has not happened before now. Paul hasn’t yet found a job. The mail hasn’t arrived yet. Yet is use in questions to find out if something has happened before now. Have you moved yet?
5. ever : It means at any time up to now. for questions Have you ever won anything valuable? Has Peter ever asked you a favor?
6. just, recently, lately They are used to talk about event in the very recent past. They have just bought a house. Mr. Payne has recently retired. I haven’t had time lately. Note: In spoken English people often use just and recently with the simple past tense.