Presentation on theme: "AP Psychology Learning 12/2/13. Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior resulting from experience or training. Associative learning: learning."— Presentation transcript:
Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior resulting from experience or training. Associative learning: learning that certain events occur together. Observational learning: learning from the behavior of others. Associative learning & observational learning fit best with what subfield(s) of psychology? (not behavioral…) Why?
Learning Habituation: a decrease in response to a stimulus after repeated exposure. Classical conditioning: associating two stimuli in order to anticipate events. Operant conditioning: associating a behavior with a consequence, thereby reinforcing certain behaviors.
Classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov (pictured) & John B. Watson subscribed to behaviorism. What is behaviorism? How did behaviorism lead to humanistic psychology?
Ivan Pavlov Studying digestion in dogs when he noticed their salivation before the presentation of food. “Psychic secretion” Measured the amount of saliva produced by dogs and determined they had learned when food would come based on another stimulus—classically conditioned.
Pavlov’s terms… Unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Neutral stimulus Conditioned stimulus Conditioned response Create a short experiment that labels each of these parts.
Pavlov’s other terms… Acquisition Extinction Spontaneous recovery Generalization Discrimination Come up with an example of each for your mini-experiment
Classical conditioning & cognition Though Pavlov largely rejected the influence of cognitive psychology on behavior, the phenomenon of predictability suggests otherwise Varying levels of utility between two conditioned stimuli
Classical conditioning & biology Negative unconditioned responses, even if not immediate, lead to avoidance. Aversions to stimuli develop particularly with senses that are ecologically relevant (taste for a rat, sight for an eagle).
Videos! Little Albert (done by John B. Watson): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hBfnXACsOI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hBfnXACsOI CC 1: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eo7jcI8fAuI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eo7jcI8fAuI CC 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WfZfMIHwSk U http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WfZfMIHwSk U
Operant conditioning Classical vs. Operant? Respondent behavior vs. Operant behavior Behavior operates based on the environment.
Law of Effect Edward Thorndike put a cat in a box. Pushing the lever once to get out leads to a much quicker recurrence next time. Law of Effect: Behavior that is rewarded is likely to recur.
B.F. Skinner Did not believe in human free will Any behavior is the result of consequences Designed experiment with rats in boxes that made them repeat a meaningless behavior in order to receive rewards. Called “radical behaviorism”: all action is determined, not free. Emphasizes observable behavior over any cognitive processes.
Operant chamber (Skinner box) A box with a device that produces a reward of some sort when manipulated.
Operant terminology Shaping Successive approximations Come up with a system to get a freshman to do your psychology homework using shaping and successive approximations.
Reinforcement An event that strengthens a behavior. Positive reinforcement: positive = gain Negative reinforcement: negative = remove Primary reinforcers Secondary reinforcers
Reinforcement Immediate vs. delayed reinforcers Come up with an example of you favoring immediate reinforcers, despite a cognitive realization of delayed gratification’s advantage. Continuous reinforcement Partial reinforcement (intermittent reinforcement) Greater resistance to extinction?
Reinforcement Schedules Fixed-ratio schedule: set # of responses Variable-ratio schedule: unpredictable # of responses Fixed-interval schedule: set period of time Variable-interval schedule: unpredictable period of time
Punishment A reinforcer that decreases a behavior. Positive punishment: positive = add Negative punishment: negative = subtract Come up with an example of positive punishment and negative punishment for a cat that threw a hairball up on you.
Quick activity Anagrams! Take the word and write down another word using the same letters. Raise your hand when you are finished.
Learned helplessness Helpless behavior that does nothing to eliminate punishment or gain reward. In learning, this usually occurs when punishments (or rewards) are unpredictable and inescapable, thus causing the organism to feel helpless and encourage defeatist behavior.
Learning & incentives Cognitive map: a mental representation of one’s environment. Remembering a cognitive map is an example of latent learning: learning that occurs but only manifests itself with an incentive.
Learning & incentives Intrinsic motivation: “interior” desire Extrinsic motivation: “exterior” desire Overjustification effect: Extrinsic reinforcers -> decreased intrinsic motivation Extrinsic removed -> behavior disappears Intrinsic motivation does not return Extrinsic motivation required for behavior Example: pizza for reading books
Learning proposals… Due on Friday, 12/6/13. Create two examples of learning: one by classical conditioning and one by operant conditioning. Rubric on separate paper. Need some inspiration? Come up with some tricks to teach your pet (or little sister).