Presentation on theme: "Learning the Consequences of Behavior"— Presentation transcript:
1 Learning the Consequences of Behavior Operant ConditioningLearning the Consequences of Behavior
2 Instrumental Conditioning The Law of Effect-ThorndikeBehaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed be unfavorable consequences become less likely.Instrumental ConditioningA procedure in which an organism learns that certain responses are instrumental in producing desired effects in the environment
3 Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning Operant (behavior) A synonym for instrumental conditioningComes from Skinner’s emphasis on how an organism learns to “operate on” its environment to produce an effectOperant (behavior)Is a behavioral response that has some effect (consequence) on an organism’s environmentOperant Chamber- Skinner BoxA chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with an attached devices to record the animal’s rate of response
5 Skinner and Skinner Box Image- Courtesy of B.F. Skinner Foundation
6 Components of Operant Conditioning ReinforcersA consequence that increases the probability that a response will occur again (strengthens the behavior it followsPositive ReinforcersPositive stimuli that act like rewardsNegative ReinforcersRemoval of an unpleasant stimuliEscape conditioningOccurs when an organism learns that a particular response will terminate an aversive stimuliAvoidance ConditioningOccurs when an organism responds to a signal in a way that prevents an aversive stimuli
8 PunishmentPresents an aversive stimuli or removes a pleasant stimuli to decrease the frequency of a behaviorDisadvantagesIt doesn’t eliminate behavior merely suppresses itNot effective unless it immediately follows the behaviorPunishment becomes associated with the punisher-so the punisher is fearedOrganism being punished may learn to relate to others in an aggressive wayPunishment makes clear what behaviors are incorrect, but doesn’t provide any demonstration of desired behaviors
9 Punishment Can work if used wisely… Punish the behavior not the person Punish immediatelyUse a severe enough punishment to eliminate the behaviorExplain and reinforce more appropriate behaviors
11 Forming and Strengthening Operant Behavior ShapingAn operant conditioning process in which successive approximations of a behavior are reinforced until the desired behavior pattern emerges.Secondary Reinforcement (Conditioned)Primary reinforcers-an innately satisfying reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need (food,water, pain relief)Conditioned or secondary reinforcer- a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer. (MONEY)Delay and size of reinforcementOperant conditioning is strongest when the delay in receiving a reinforcer is short and the reinforcer is large
12 Schedules of Reinforcement Ratio schedules (fixed or variable) generally produce higher response rates than do interval schedules, and variable schedules (ratio or interval) generally produce greater resistance to extinction than do fixed schedules.
13 Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement scheduleEvery correct response receives a rewardPartial or Intermittent reinforcement scheduleReinforcement is received only some of the timeFixed Ratio Schedules (FR)Give a reward after a fixed number of responsesVariable-Ratio Schedules (VR)Give a reward after an average number of responsesFixed-Interval Schedules (FI)Reward the first response displayed after a fixed time intervalVariable-Interval Schedule (VI)Reward the first response displayed after a varying time intervalSchedules and ExtinctionThe partial reinforcement extinction effectDemonstrates that it is more difficult to extinguish an operant behavior learned under a partial rather than a continuous reinforcement schedule
14 Cognition and Operant Conditioning Latent learningLearning that occurs but is not apparent until there is some reason to demonstrate itCognitive mapA mental representation of the layout of one’s environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it. (Tolman)Overjustification effectThe effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do. The person may now see the reward, rather than the intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task.
16 Other cognitive processes in learning Learned HelplessnessOccurs when an organism believes that behaviors are not related to consequencesWhen people’s past experience leads them to believe that nothing they can do will change their lives, they tend to stop trying.InsightThe sudden grasp of new relationships that are necessary to solve a problem and that were not learned in the past.Kohler’s studies of chimpanzee problem-solving