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Chapter 11 Section 2 A Century of Reform in Britain

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1 Chapter 11 Section 2 A Century of Reform in Britain

2 Economic reforms that benefited British workers and others
Free trade – trade between countries without quotas, tariffs, etc. Early 1800’s foreign imports were taxed to protect local industries Supporters of free trade Increased market outside England Consumers would benefit from more competition (lower prices) Corn Laws kept price of British grain high with high tariffs on imported grains Farmers & wealthy landowners supported Corn Laws, made more money Free traders wanted Corn Laws repealed (canceled) The result would be lower price of grain Make price of bread cheaper for workers Open up trade

3 The issue of slavery in Britain
1807 – Britain 1st European nation to abolish slave trade 1833 – banned slavery in all British colonies

4 Capital Crimes Crimes punishable by death Early 1800’s over 200 crimes
1850 reduced number of capital offenses to treason, murder, piracy & arson Petty criminal sent to penal colonies – special settlements for convicts – Australia, New Zealand 1868- ended public hangings, improved prison conditions outlawed imprisonment for debt

5 Reforms for Industrial workers
1842 mine workers could no longer employ women or children under 10 1847 women & children – 10 hour day Late 1800’s improved safety conditions, set minimum wages & maximum working hours 1825 trade unions made legal (strikes still illegal) Education Act – free elementary education for all children 1883 Fabian Society – socialist organization Promoted gradual change through legal means, not violence Worked for social reforms 1900 Socialists & Fabians formed new political party – Labour Party

6 Women’s Sufferage Women were divided on voting issue
Queen Victoria was against the idea Emmeline Parkhurst – leading suffragist, she was radical Huge public demonstrations Turned to violent protests Arrested, jailed, went on hunger strikes

7 “Irish Question” England conquered Ireland in 1100
1600’s colonized Ireland; took possession of best farmland Irish resented absentee landlords – owned large estates but did not live on them Irish peasants lived in poverty Paid high rents to English landlord Irish Catholics forced to pay tithes to Church of England

8 Irish Nationalists Campaigned for freedom & justice
Led by Daniel O’Connell, formed Irish Catholic League “To get Ireland for the Irish” 1829 British Parliament passed Catholic Emancipation Act, allowed Catholics to vote & hold political office

9 The Great Hunger - Potato Famine
¾’s of Irish farmland used for crops sent to England Potato main source of food for most Irish people 1845 blight/disease destroyed potato crop; resulted in terrible famine In 4 years 1 million Irish died of starvation or disease About 2 million emigrated to U.S. & Canada

10 Irish Home Rule Struggle for Home Rule – local self-government
1850’s organized Fenian brotherhood – goal to liberate Ireland from British rule by force 1870’s moderate nationalists were led by Charles Parnell Ended Irish tithe to Anglican Church Prevented landlords from charging unfair rents Protected rights of tenants to land they worked 1914 Parliament passed Home Rule Bill and Ireland became independent in 1921

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