2 Introduction Questions Read the excerpt from the Two Nations at the top of page 360 and answer the following questions:Why do you think Charles Egremont believed that England was “the greatest nation that ever existed”?What “two nations” existed in England at the time?
3 Reforming ParliamentBritain was a constitutional monarchy with a Parliament; two political parties existed – the Whigs (liberal party) and the Tories (conservative party)lack of democratic ideals – less than 5% of people could vote, the upper class dominated politics, the House of Lords could veto any bill passed by the House of Commons
4 Reform Act of 1832 The Chartist Movement enlarged the electorate – body of people able to voteeliminated rotten boroughs – small unpopulated rural towns that were unevenly represented in Parliament; representation given to the new largely populated industrial townsgreater political voice given to middleclass menThe Chartist MovementCalled for radical change to help the poor urban and rural workersDemanded universal manhood suffrage, annual Parliament elections and salaries for members of ParliamentThis movement declined but influenced later political movements
5 The Victorian Age – led by Queen Victoria symbol of a nation’s values – Queen Victoria embraced a strict code of morals and manners including duty, thrift, honesty, hard work and respectabilitya confident ageBritain was confident because of their dominant world positionQueen Victoria pushed for social and economic justice
6 A New Era in British Politics leadership in ParliamentBenjamin Disraeli – forged the Tories into the modern conservative partyWilliam Gladstone – forged the Whigs into the modern liberal party
7 Expanding Suffrage Limiting the Lords Reform Bill of 1867 – doubled the size of the electorate by including working class menBy century’s end England had universal male suffrage, the secret ballot, and other Chartist ambitions had been metChange from a constitutional monarchy to a parliamentary democracy – a form of government in which the executive leaders (prime minister and cabinet) are chosen by and responsible to the legislature (Parliament) and are also members of itLimiting the LordsParliament Bill of 1911 – gave the House of Commons supremacy over the House of Lords
8 Read over pagesCreate a symbol that represents the main idea for each sectionA Series of ReformsVictories for the Working ClassThe Struggle to Win Votes for WomenInstability in IrelandAlso for each symbol write one sentence that explains the meaning behind the symbol
10 Social and Economic Reform in Britain A Series of Reformsfree trade – trade between countries without quotas, tariffs or other restrictionsCorn Laws – imposed high tariffs on imported grainfarmers and wealthy landowners wanted to keep the corn laws whereas the freetraders (middle class business leaders) wanted to repeal the lawscorn laws repealed in 1846 allowing the free market to determine prices
11 campaign against slavery abolition movement – campaign against slavery and slave tradeEngland bans slavery in 1807; bans slavery in colonies in 1833Crime and Punishmentcapital offenses – crimes punishable by death – were eventually limited to murder, piracy, treason, and arsonpetty criminals were sent to penal colonies – settlements for convicts – like Australia
12 Victories for the Working Class improve working conditions – government regulation of factories and mines, limited work hours, restricted child and women labor, increased safety conditions, set minimum wages, and limited maximum hours of workthe growth of labor unions – labor unions became legal and grew tremendously betweenlater reformsimproved public health and housing for workersfree elementary educationgovernment jobs are earned through merit
13 Fabian Society – socialist group that fought for reform through legal means rather than violence Socialists and union members formed the Labour Party which eventually would replace the Liberal Party by the 1920sReforms made by the British government limited the support given to radical Marxist (socialist) groups
14 The Struggle to Win Votes for Women Suffragists RevoltEmmeline Pankhurst promoted drastic – extreme – tactics to make changeBy 1918 all women over 30 had the right to vote
15 Instability in Ireland England had colonized Ireland by the 1600sThe Irish never accepted English rule – they resented English settlers, absentee landlords – owned large estates but didn’t live on them, and the suppression of their Catholic religion and Irish cultureIrish nationalism – led by Daniel O’Connell who wanted to “get Ireland for the Irish”Catholic Emancipation Act – allowed Catholics to vote and hold political office
16 Struggle for Home RuleFenian Brotherhood – radical Irish militant groupMore moderate Irish nationalists, led by Charles Stewart Purnell, rallied Irish members of Parliament to push for home rule – local self governmentThe “Irish Questions” disrupted English politics forcing Parliament to pass reforms and eventually vote for a home rule bill in 1914
17 “The Irish Question”Read over page 368 and answer the Critically Thinking questions at the bottom of the page.Read over page 370 and answer question #1 in the Critically Thinking questions at the bottom of the page.