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Democratic Reform in Britain

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Presentation on theme: "Democratic Reform in Britain"— Presentation transcript:

1 Democratic Reform in Britain

2 Introduction Questions
Read the excerpt from the Two Nations at the top of page 360 and answer the following questions: Why do you think Charles Egremont believed that England was “the greatest nation that ever existed”? What “two nations” existed in England at the time?

3 Reforming Parliament Britain was a constitutional monarchy with a Parliament; two political parties existed – the Whigs (liberal party) and the Tories (conservative party) lack of democratic ideals – less than 5% of people could vote, the upper class dominated politics, the House of Lords could veto any bill passed by the House of Commons

4 Reform Act of 1832 The Chartist Movement
enlarged the electorate – body of people able to vote eliminated rotten boroughs – small unpopulated rural towns that were unevenly represented in Parliament; representation given to the new largely populated industrial towns greater political voice given to middleclass men The Chartist Movement Called for radical change to help the poor urban and rural workers Demanded universal manhood suffrage, annual Parliament elections and salaries for members of Parliament This movement declined but influenced later political movements

5 The Victorian Age – led by Queen Victoria
symbol of a nation’s values – Queen Victoria embraced a strict code of morals and manners including duty, thrift, honesty, hard work and respectability a confident age Britain was confident because of their dominant world position Queen Victoria pushed for social and economic justice

6 A New Era in British Politics
leadership in Parliament Benjamin Disraeli – forged the Tories into the modern conservative party William Gladstone – forged the Whigs into the modern liberal party

7 Expanding Suffrage Limiting the Lords
Reform Bill of 1867 – doubled the size of the electorate by including working class men By century’s end England had universal male suffrage, the secret ballot, and other Chartist ambitions had been met Change from a constitutional monarchy to a parliamentary democracy – a form of government in which the executive leaders (prime minister and cabinet) are chosen by and responsible to the legislature (Parliament) and are also members of it Limiting the Lords Parliament Bill of 1911 – gave the House of Commons supremacy over the House of Lords

8 Read over pages Create a symbol that represents the main idea for each section A Series of Reforms Victories for the Working Class The Struggle to Win Votes for Women Instability in Ireland Also for each symbol write one sentence that explains the meaning behind the symbol

9 Democratic Reform in Britain

10 Social and Economic Reform in Britain
A Series of Reforms free trade – trade between countries without quotas, tariffs or other restrictions Corn Laws – imposed high tariffs on imported grain farmers and wealthy landowners wanted to keep the corn laws whereas the freetraders (middle class business leaders) wanted to repeal the laws corn laws repealed in 1846 allowing the free market to determine prices

11 campaign against slavery
abolition movement – campaign against slavery and slave trade England bans slavery in 1807; bans slavery in colonies in 1833 Crime and Punishment capital offenses – crimes punishable by death – were eventually limited to murder, piracy, treason, and arson petty criminals were sent to penal colonies – settlements for convicts – like Australia

12 Victories for the Working Class
improve working conditions – government regulation of factories and mines, limited work hours, restricted child and women labor, increased safety conditions, set minimum wages, and limited maximum hours of work the growth of labor unions – labor unions became legal and grew tremendously between later reforms improved public health and housing for workers free elementary education government jobs are earned through merit

13 Fabian Society – socialist group that fought for reform through legal means rather than violence
Socialists and union members formed the Labour Party which eventually would replace the Liberal Party by the 1920s Reforms made by the British government limited the support given to radical Marxist (socialist) groups

14 The Struggle to Win Votes for Women
Suffragists Revolt Emmeline Pankhurst promoted drastic – extreme – tactics to make change By 1918 all women over 30 had the right to vote

15 Instability in Ireland
England had colonized Ireland by the 1600s The Irish never accepted English rule – they resented English settlers, absentee landlords – owned large estates but didn’t live on them, and the suppression of their Catholic religion and Irish culture Irish nationalism – led by Daniel O’Connell who wanted to “get Ireland for the Irish” Catholic Emancipation Act – allowed Catholics to vote and hold political office

16 Struggle for Home Rule Fenian Brotherhood – radical Irish militant group More moderate Irish nationalists, led by Charles Stewart Purnell, rallied Irish members of Parliament to push for home rule – local self government The “Irish Questions” disrupted English politics forcing Parliament to pass reforms and eventually vote for a home rule bill in 1914

17 “The Irish Question” Read over page 368 and answer the Critically Thinking questions at the bottom of the page. Read over page 370 and answer question #1 in the Critically Thinking questions at the bottom of the page.

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