 # Lesson 1 Gravity and Friction Lesson 2 Newton’s First Law

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Lesson 1 Gravity and Friction Lesson 2 Newton’s First Law
Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Gravity and Friction Lesson 2 Newton’s First Law Lesson 3 Newton’s Second Law Lesson 4 Newton’s Third Law Chapter Wrap-Up Chapter Menu

Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC
Gravity and Friction What are some contact forces and some noncontact forces? What is the law of universal gravitation? How does friction affect the motion of two objects sliding past each other? Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC

Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab
Gravity and Friction force contact force noncontact force gravity mass weight friction Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab

Types of Forces A push or a pull is called a force.
An object or a person can apply a force to another object or person. force from Latin fortis, means “strong” Lesson 1-1

Types of Forces (cont.) A contact force is a force that is applied when two objects touch. A force that one object can apply to another object without touching it is a noncontact force. Gravity and magnetic force are examples of noncontact forces. Lesson 1-1

What is gravity? Gravity is an attractive force that exists between all objects that have mass. Objects fall to the ground because Earth exerts gravity on them. Free Fall – an object falls only under the influence of gravity (accelerates at 9.8 m/s each second( Mass is the amount of matter in an object. Mass is often measured in kilograms (kg). Lesson 1-2

The SI unit for force is the newton (N).
Arrows can be used to show both the strength and direction of force. Lesson 1-1

What is gravity? (cont.) Sir Isaac Newton developed the law of universal gravitation in the late 1600s. The law of universal gravitation states that all objects are attracted to each other by a gravitational force. Lesson 1-2

What is gravity? (cont.) The strength of force depends on the mass of each object and the distance between them. When the mass of one or both objects increases, the gravitational force between them also increases. Lesson 1-2

What is gravity? (cont.) Weight is the gravitational force exerted on an object. Near Earth’s surface, an object’s weight is the gravitational force exerted on the object by Earth. Because weight is a force, it is measured in newtons. Lesson 1-2

What is gravity? (cont.) An object’s weight is proportional to its mass. Near Earth’s surface, the weight of an object in newtons is about ten times its mass in kilograms. Lesson 1-2

Friction Friction is a force that opposes the movement between two touching surfaces. There are several types of friction. static friction sliding friction fluid friction Lesson 1-3

Friction (cont.) Static friction prevents surfaces from sliding past each other. Up to a limit, the strength of static friction changes to match the applied force. Sliding friction opposes the motion of surfaces sliding past each other. Lesson 1-3

Friction (cont.) Fluid friction is friction between a surface and a fluid—any material, such as water or air, that flows. Fluid friction between a surface and air is air resistance. Lesson 1-3

Reducing Friction Lubricants decrease friction and with less friction, it is easier for surfaces to slide past each other. Lesson 1-3

Forces can be either contact, such as a karate chop, or noncontact, such as gravity. Each type is described by its strength and direction. Lesson 1 - VS

Gravity is an attractive force that acts between any two objects that have mass. The attraction is stronger for objects with greater mass. Lesson 1 - VS

Friction can reduce the speed of objects sliding past each other
Friction can reduce the speed of objects sliding past each other. Air resistance is a type of fluid friction that slows the speed of a falling object. Lesson 1 - VS

Which refers to gravitational force exerted on an object?
A. contact force B. gravity C. mass D. weight Lesson 1 – LR1

Which is proportional to an object’s weight?
A. gravitational force B. length C. mass D. noncontact force Lesson 1 – LR2

Which is a force that opposes the movement between two touching surfaces?
A. net force B. lubricant C. gravity D. friction Lesson 1 – LR3

Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC
Newton’s First Law What is Newton’s first law of motion? How is motion related to balanced and unbalanced forces? What effect does inertia have on the motion of an object? Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC

Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab
Newton’s First Law net force balanced forces unbalanced forces Newton’s first law of motion inertia Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab

Identifying Forces The sum of all the forces acting on an object is the net force. The net force depends on the directions of the forces applied to an object. Because forces have direction, you have to specify a reference direction when you add forces. Lesson 2-1

Identifying Forces (cont.)
A force moving in the reference direction is positive, and a force in the opposite direction is negative. When the forces applied to an object act in the same direction, the net force is the sum of the individual forces. Lesson 2-1

Identifying Forces (cont.)
When forces act in opposite direction on an object, the net force is still the sum of the forces. The net force is the sum of the positive and negative forces. Lesson 2-1

Identifying Forces (cont.)
Balanced forces are forces that combine and form a net force of zero. Forces that combine and form a net force that is not zero are unbalanced forces. Lesson 2-1

Newton’s First Law of Motion
According to Newton’s first law of motion, if the net force on an object is zero, an object at rest will stay at rest, and a moving object will continue moving in a straight line with constant speed. As a result, balanced forces and unbalanced forces have different results when they act on an object. Lesson 2-2

Newton’s First Law of Motion (cont.)
Balanced forces acting on an object do not change the object’s speed and direction. Newton’s first law of motion only applies to balanced forces acting on an object. When unbalanced forces act on an object, the object’s velocity changes. Lesson 2-2

Newton’s First Law of Motion (cont.)
The tendency of an object to resist a change in its motion is called inertia. inertia from Latin iners, means “without skill, inactive” Lesson 2-2

Why do objects stop moving?
For an object to start moving, a force greater than static friction must be applied to it. To keep an object in motion, a force at least as strong as friction must be applied continuously. Objects stop moving because friction or another force acts on them. Lesson 2-3

Unbalanced forces cause an object to move.
According to Newton’s first law of motion, if the net force on an object is zero, the object’s velocity does not change. Inertia is a property that resists a change in the motion of an object. Lesson 2 - VS

Which refers to forces that combine and form a net force that is not zero?
A. balanced forces B. inertia C. net force D. unbalanced forces Lesson 2 – LR1

Which could cause an object to stop moving?
A. friction B. inertia C. unbalanced forces D. velocity Lesson 2 – LR2

When equal forces act on an object in opposite directions, what is the net force on the object?
A. zero B. one C. equal D. balanced Lesson 2 – LR3

3. Forces acting on an object cannot be added.
Do you agree or disagree? 3. Forces acting on an object cannot be added. 4. A moving object will stop if no forces act on it. Lesson 2 - Now

Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC
Newton’s Second Law What is Newton’s second law of motion? How does centripetal force affect circular motion? Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC

Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab
Newton’s Second Law Newton’s second law of motion circular motion centripetal force Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab

How do forces change motion?
Forces change an object’s motion by changing its speed, its direction, or both its speed and its direction. Velocity is speed in a certain direction. Only unbalanced forces change an object’s velocity. Lesson 3-1

How do forces change motion? (cont.)
When unbalanced forces act on an object at rest, the object begins moving in the direction of the net force. If the net force acting on a moving object is in the direction that the object is moving, the object will speed up. If the direction of the net force on an object is opposite to the direction the object moves, the object slows down. Lesson 3-1

When unbalanced forces act on a ball at rest, it moves in the direction of the net force.
Lesson 3-1

How do forces change motion? (cont.)
Unbalanced forces can change an object’s velocity by changing the object’s direction. Another name for a change in velocity over time is acceleration. Unbalanced forces make an object accelerate by changing its speed, its direction, or both. Lesson 3-1

Newton’s Second Law of Motion
According to Newton’s second law of motion, the acceleration of an object is equal to the net force acting on the object divided by the object’s mass. Lesson 3-2

Lesson 3-2

Newton’s Second Law of Motion (cont.)
The direction of acceleration is the same as the direction of the net force. Acceleration is expressed in meters per second squared (m/s2), mass in kilograms (kg), and force in newtons (N). Lesson 3-2

Circular Motion Circular motion is any motion in which an object is moving along a curved path. In circular motion, a force that acts perpendicular to the direction of motion, toward the center of the curve, is centripetal force. Lesson 3-3

Circular Motion (cont.)
centripetal from Latin centripetus, means “toward the center” Lesson 3-3

Circular Motion (cont.)
Lesson 3-3

Circular Motion (cont.)
How does centripetal force affect circular motion? Lesson 3-3

Circular Motion (cont.)
A satellite is an object that orbits a larger object. A satellite tends to move along a straight path because of inertia. Gravity is the centripetal force that keeps a satellite in orbit by changing its direction. Lesson 3-3

Unbalanced forces cause an object to speed up, slow down, or change direction.
Lesson 3 - VS

Newton’s second law of motion relates an objects acceleration to its mass and the net force on the object. Lesson 3 - VS

Any motion in which an object is moving along a curved path is circular motion.
Lesson 3 - VS

Which term refers to speed in a certain direction?
A. acceleration B. centripetal force C. inertia D. velocity Lesson 3 – LR1

Which refers to motion along a curved path?
A. acceleration B. centripetal C. circular D. unbalanced Lesson 3 – LR2

Which refers to a change in velocity over time?
A. inertia B. acceleration C. circulation motion D. centripetal force Lesson 3 – LR3

5. When an object’s speed increases, the object accelerates.
Do you agree or disagree? 5. When an object’s speed increases, the object accelerates. 6. If an object’s mass increases, its acceleration also increases if the net force acting on the object stays the same. Lesson 3 - Now

Lesson 4 Reading Guide - KC
Newton’s Third Law What is Newton’s third law of motion? Why don’t the forces in a force pair cancel each other? What is the law of conservation of momentum? Lesson 4 Reading Guide - KC

Lesson 4 Reading Guide - Vocab
Newton’s Third Law Newton’s third law of motion force pair momentum law of conservation of momentum Lesson 4 Reading Guide - Vocab

Opposite Forces When an object applies a force on another object, the second object applies a force of the same strength on the first object, but the force is in the opposite direction. Lesson 4-1

Newton’s Third Law of Motion
According to Newton’s third law of motion, when one object applies a force on a second object, the second object applies an equal force in the opposite direction on the first object. What is Newton’s third law of motion? Lesson 4-2

Newton’s Third Law of Motion (cont.)
A force pair is the forces two objects apply to each other. If the forces of a force pair always act in opposite directions and are always the same strength, they do not cancel each other out because each force acts on a different object. Lesson 4-2

Newton’s Third Law of Motion (cont.)
Adding forces can only result in a net force of zero if the forces act on the same object. In a force pair, one force is called the action force and the other force is called the reaction force. Lesson 4-2

Newton’s Third Law of Motion (cont.)
Why don’t the forces in a force pair cancel each other? Lesson 4-2

Using Newton’s Third Law of Motion
When you push against an object, the force you apply is called the action force. The force applied by the object back against you is called the reaction force. According to Newton’s third law of motion, every action force has a reaction force in the opposite direction. Lesson 4-3

Momentum Momentum is a measure of how hard it is to stop a moving object. momentum from Latin momentum, means “movement, impulse” Lesson 4-4

Momentum (cont.) Momentum is the product of an object’s mass and velocity. Lesson 4-4

Lesson 4-4

Momentum (cont.) An object’s momentum is in the same direction as its velocity. According to Newton’s first law, if the net force on an object is zero, neither its velocity nor its momentum change. Because momentum is the product of mass and velocity, the force on an object equals its change in momentum. Lesson 4-4

Conservation of Momentum
According to the law of conservation of momentum, the total momentum of a group of objects stays the same unless outside forces such as friction act on the objects. What is the law of conservation of momentum? Lesson 4-5

Conservation of Momentum (cont.)
When colliding objects bounce off each other, it is an elastic collision. If objects collide and stick together, the collision is inelastic. No matter the type of collision, the total momentum will be the same before and after the collision. Lesson 4-5

In any collision, momentum is transferred from one object to another.
Newton’s third law of motion describes the force pair between two objects. For every action force, there is a reaction force that is equal in strength but opposite in direction. In any collision, momentum is transferred from one object to another. Lesson 4 - VS

A. Newton’s third law of motion B. Newton’s second law of motion
Which law explains that every force has a reaction force in the opposite direction? A. Newton’s third law of motion B. Newton’s second law of motion C. Newton’s first law of motion D. law of conservation of momentum Lesson 4 – LR1

Which is a measure of how hard it is to stop a moving object?
A. velocity B. momentum C. inertia D. elastic collision Lesson 4 – LR2

Which refers to the forces two objects apply to each other?
A. velocity B. momentum C. force pair D. collision Lesson 4 – LR3

7. If objects collide, the object with more mass applies more force.
Do you agree or disagree? 7. If objects collide, the object with more mass applies more force. 8. Momentum is a measure of how hard it is to stop a moving object. Lesson 4 - Now

Interactive Concept Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice
Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice Chapter Review Menu

An object’s motion changes if a net force acts on the object.
The BIG Idea

Lesson 1: Gravity and Friction
Friction is a contact force. Magnetism is a noncontact force. The law of universal gravitation states that all objects are attracted to each other by gravity. Friction can stop or slow down objects sliding past each other. Key Concepts 1

Lesson 2: Newton’s First Law
An object’s motion can only be changed by unbalanced forces. According to Newton’s first law of motion, the motion of an object is not changed by balanced forces acting on it. Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist a change in its motion. Key Concepts 2

Lesson 3: Newton’s Second Law
According to Newton’s second law of motion, an object’s acceleration is the net force on the object divided by its mass. In circular motion, a centripetal force pulls an object toward the center of the curve. Key Concepts 3

Lesson 4: Newton’s Third Law
Newton’s third law of motion states that when one object applies a force on another, the second object applies an equal force in the opposite direction on the first object. The forces of a force pair do not cancel because they act on different objects. According to the law of conservation of momentum, momentum is conserved during a collision unless an outside force acts on the colliding objects. Key Concepts 4

Which term refers to the amount of matter in an object?
A. weight B. mass C. inertia D. gravity Chapter Review – MC1

Which refers to a force that is applied when two objects touch?
A. contact B. gravity C. mass D. noncontact Chapter Review – MC2

Which term refers to forces that combine with a net force of zero?
A. unbalanced B. terminal C. centripetal D. balanced Chapter Review – MC3

The tendency of an object to resist a change in its motion is called what?
A. velocity B. terminal velocity C. net force D. inertia Chapter Review – MC4

A. Newton’s third law of motion B. Newton’s second law of motion
Which law states that the total momentum of a group of objects stays the same unless outside forces act on the objects? A. Newton’s third law of motion B. Newton’s second law of motion C. Newton’s first law of motion D. law of conservation of momentum Chapter Review – MC5

Which term refers to a force that one object can apply to another without touching?
A. weight B. noncontact C. inertia D. contact Chapter Review – STP1

Which describes the magnetic force?
A. contact B. gravitational C. noncontact D. static Chapter Review – STP2

Which describes the net force of different forces acting in the same direction?
A. unbalanced B. proportional C. noncontact D. negative Chapter Review – STP3

If the net force acting on a moving object is in the direction that the object is moving, the object does what? A. stops B. speeds up C. slows down D. changes direction Chapter Review – STP4

Which refers to the collision of objects that bounce off each other?
A. elastic B. friction C. inelastic D. inertia Chapter Review – STP5

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