2 What is Ecology?What is the lowest level of organization that most ecologists study?What name is given to several organisms in the same species interacting together?What factors are included in an ecosystem that are not included in a community?Describe how ecosystems and biomes differ?Which level of biological organization is the most complex?
3 What is Ecology?What is the lowest level of organization that most ecologists study? organismWhat name is given to several organisms in the same species interacting together? populationWhat factors are included in an ecosystem that are not included in a community? Abiotic factorsDescribe how ecosystems and biomes differ? Biomes include several ecosystems over a large area.Which level of biological organization is the most complex? Biosphere
4 Levels of Organization Ecologist study organisms ranging from the various levels of organization:SpeciesPopulationCommunityEcosystemBiomeBiosphere
5 InterrelationshipsDefine the 3 categories of symbiosis and give an example of each – and record in your journal/notebookWhat is competition? Give an example.What is predation? Give an example
6 Population – group of individuals of the same species living in the same area, potentially interactingCommunity – group of populations of different speciesliving in the same area, potentially interactingWhat are some ecological interactions?
7 Why are ecological interactions important? Interactions can affect distribution and abundance.Interactions can influence evolution.Think about how the following interactions can affectdistribution, abundance, and evolution.
8 Types of ecological interactions competitionpredationparasitismmutualismcommensalismsymbiosis
10 Competition – two species share a requirement for a limited resource reduces fitness of one or both species
11 Predation – one species feeds on another enhances fitness of predator but reduces fitness of preyherbivory is a form ofpredation
12 Parasitism – one species feeds on another enhances fitness of parasite but reduces fitness of host
13 Mutualism – two species provide resources or services to each other enhances fitness of both species
14 Commensalism – one species receives a benefit from another species enhances fitness of one species; noeffect on fitness of the other species
15 Symbiosis – two species live together can include parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism
16 Organizing ecological interactions effect on species 1predationherbivoryparasitism+-commensalismmutualismeffect onspecies 2competition
17 Ecosystem Interactions What is a habitat?What is a niche?
18 Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem What are: autotrophs, heterotrophs, herbivore, carnivore, omnivores, detritivoresWhat is the main energy source for life?What is a trophic level?How do you draw a food chain, food web? What is the difference?What group is at the top of the pyramid of energy, biomass, numbers?
19 How does Energy flow through an Ecosystem? Energy flows through an ecosystem in ONE direction,sun or chemicalsAutotrophsheterotrophs
23 Ecological PyramidsTrophic Level – each step in a food chain or food webBiomass PyramidEnergy PyramidPyramid of Numbers
24 How does Matter move through an ecosystem? Unlike the one way flow of energy, matter is recycled within & between ecosystemsNutrients are passed betweenorganisms & the environment through biogeochemical cyclesBiogeochemical Cycles:Bio –lifeGeo – EarthChemo – chemicalWATER CYCLENUTRIENT CYCLES:CARBON CYCLENITROGEN CYCLEPHOSPHORUS CYCLE
25 Why are nutrients important ? Every living organism needs nutrients to build tissues and carry out essential life functions.95% of your body is made of…OXYGENCARBONHYDROGENNITROGEN
27 Water Cycle 1 Water Water on land enters atmosphere by evaporation, transpirationleaves atmosphere as precipitationWater on landfilters through groundruns off to lakes, rivers, ocean
28 Water Cycle 2 Aquifers Runoff underground caverns, porous layers of rockstore groundwaterRunoffmovement of surface water from land to ocean
29 CARBON CYCLE (see fig.3-13) 4 PROCESSES MOVE CARBON THROUGH ITS CYCLE:BiologicalGeochemicalMixed biochemicalHuman ActivityCO2CO2
30 Carbon Cycle CO2 gas enters plants, algae, cyanobacteria photosynthesis turns CO2 into organic moleculesCellular respiration, combustion, erosion of limestone return CO2 to water, atmospherewhere it is again available to producers
31 NITROGEN CYCLE (see fig.3-14) in AtmosphereNitrogen-containing nutrients in the biosphere include:Ammonia (NH3)Nitrate (NO3-)Nitrite (NO2-)ORGANISMS NEED NITROGEN TO MAKE AMINO ACIDS FOR BUILDING PROTEINS!!!N03- &N02-NH3
32 Nitrogen Cycle 1 Nitrogen fixation Nitrification conversion of nitrogen gas to ammoniaNitrificationconversion of ammonia or ammonium to nitrate
33 Nitrogen Cycle 2 Assimilation conversion of nitrates, ammonia, or ammonium to proteins, chlorophyll, or nitrogen-containing compounds (by plants)conversion of plant proteins into animal proteins