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Chapter 2 Psychological Research Methods and Statistics

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1 Chapter 2 Psychological Research Methods and Statistics
Section 1 What is Research

2 Objectives Describe the process of psychological research and scientific method Name the different types of psychological research

3 Pre-Research Decisions
1. Ask a specific question about a limited topic or hypothesis. 2. Look for evidence Sample- the small group of participants, out of the total population that psychologist study. Must be representative of the population

4 Sample Random Sample- everyone in the population has an equal chance of being represented Studying shoppers- select every 10th shopper that walks by Stratified Sample- all subgroups in the population are represented School population– 45% Girls 55% Boys- this has to be represented in the sample

5 Methods of Research Goals of Research – Describe, Explain, Predict and Influence Behavior Researchers need to know how people and animals behave naturally ex. Jane Goodall Naturalistic Observation- observing the subject in its natural setting without interfering. Try to be as unobtrusive as possible, otherwise you may alter the subjects behavior.

6 Research Methods Case Studies- intense study of a person or group
Combine long-term studies with diaries, tests, and interviews. Ex. Piaget studied his own children's cognitive development

7 Research Methods Surveys- asking many individuals a fixed set of questions Used to gather data on the attitudes, beliefs and experiences of large numbers of people. Interviews, questionnaires or a combination Interviews allow the researcher to observe the participant and modify questions Questionnaires take less time and the answers are more uniform

8 Research Methods Longitudinal Studies
Studies the same group of people at regular intervals over a period of time. To see in their beliefs/feelings have changed Cross-Sectional Groups studied on the basis of age Tested, surveyed or observed Faster and less expensive than longitudinal

9 Research Methods Correlations and Explanations
The measure of a relationship between two variables or sets of data Positive Correlation- Data moves in the same direction IQ and Grades: The higher the IQ the Higher the Grade, The lower the IQ the lower the Grade Negative Correlation- Data moves in different directions Days absent and Grade: absences go up grade goes down, absences go down grade goes up.

10 Experiments Allow the investigator to control the situation
Variables- conditions and behaviors that are subject to change Independent Variable- the one experimenters change so they can observe its effects Dependent Variable- changes in relation to the Independent variable.

11 Experiments Experimental Group - Participants who are exposed to the independent variable Control Group- Participants who are treated the same as the exp group but not exposed to the independent variable Necessary in all experiments

12 Ethical Issues Ethics- the methods of conduct or standards, for proper and responsible behavior See list on p40-41

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