Presentation on theme: "The Research Enterprise in Psychology"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Research Enterprise in Psychology Unit 1Chapter 2Research Methods, Measurement, and StatisticsStudents will describe research methods and measurements used to study behavior and mental processes and identify ethical issues in research with human and non-human animals. Students will also explain basic concepts of data analysis
2 Steps in a Scientific Investigation hypothesis- tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variablesvariables- any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a studytheory- set of interrelated ideas used to explain and connect known facts and predict eventsP.1 Describe the scientific method and its role in psychology.
3 Experimentsexperiments allow researchers to detect cause-and-effect relationships among variables and subjectsindependent variable- condition/event that is manipulateddependent variable- affected by manipulation of independent variableexperimental group- subjects who receive special treatment through independent variablecontrol group- subjects who do not receive special treatmentP.2 Describe and compare a variety of quantitative and qualitative research methods
4 Other Research Methods Naturalistic ObservationResearcher engages in careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with subjectsLess artificial than experimentsCase Studiesin-depth investigation of an individual subjectdata collection methods include interviews, observations, and psychological testingpopular among clinical psychologists investigating psychological disordersSurveysquestionnaires or interviews that gather information about subjects background or behaviorcollect data on attitudes and opinions from large samplesP.2 Describe and compare a variety of quantitative and qualitative research methods
5 Research Problems and Resolutions extraneous variables- any variable other than IV that influences DVconfounding of variables- occurs when 2 variables are linked making it difficult to sort out their specific effectsrandom assignment- all subjects have equal chance or being assigned to any group or condition in studyP.3 Elaborate on systematic procedures used to improve the validity of research findings
6 Looking for Flaws: Evaluating Research P.9 Explain how validity and reliability of observations and measurements relate to data analysis.
7 Know your terms Hypothesis: IV: DV: Control Group: Experimental Group: proposed explanationvariable the researcher controls/manipulatesresponse to the change in the independent variable; the measurements collected in the experimentsubjects do not receive the independent variable; standard of comparison for the experimental groupsubjects exposed to the independent variable; the test group
8 Quiz PracticeStudents who study perform better in school.Hypothesis: If _______________________________, then _______________________________________IV: ___________________ DV: __________________Control Group: _____________________________Experimental Group: ________________________a student studieshe/she will perform better in schoolstudyinggrades/performancestudents not studyingstudents studying
9 Conduct Your Own! First, pick a topic that interests your group. Formulate a hypothesis.MUST be a statement about the outcome you predict will occur.Choose a methodSurvey or naturalistic observationCollect your dataTally marks work great!Analyze Data & Draw ConclusionsCreate a chart/graph to represent the data you collectedDraw 2-3 conclusions on why you think people responded or behaved in certain ways.Report your FindingsInclude a final statement about your resultsState whether your hypothesis was supported or rejected.Last, turn in to basket with all members names.