The Problem 1. Identify a problem

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The Problem 1. Identify a problem
2. May be something you have observed 3. You wonder why it happens

Purpose sentences that explains why you are doing this investigation 2. Should state what benefit will be gained from answering the experimental question 3. “The purpose of this project is “

The Question 1. Experiment is designed to answer the question.
2. Must be answered with measurable data collected during the experiment 3. Is not based on opinion or a survey 4. Must contain the Dependent and Independent Variable

Variables 1. Anything in an experiment that can change.
2. Only two variable should change: 1. one on purpose 2. one as a result 3. All other variable must remain the same - controlled

Independent Variable Dependent Variable Controlled Variables
What you change on purpose in an experiment to see if it makes a difference. The whole point of the experiment Independent  I changed it Dependent Variable What changes in an experiment because of the independent variable. What you are measuring – the data Dependent  Data Controlled Variables All other aspect of an experiment must remain the same.

Identify the Variables
Underline the independent variable and circle the dependent variable. 1. Will Bounty or Gala absorb more water? Will Bounty or Gala absorb more water? Controlled: same size paper towel same amount of water equal time of towel in water

2. Does flake or chunk shaped cereal absorb more milk?
Does flake or chunk shaped cereals absorb more milk? Controlled: same amount of milk same amount of cereal same type bowls

3. Will nail polish dry faster under a light or a fan?
Controlled: Same amount of exposure to light and fan Same type of nail polish Same amount of polish: 1 or 2 coats

Hypothesis 1. States a proposed solution to a scientific problem
2. Should answer the problem question 3. Must contain both the Independent and Dependent Variable. 4. Must be written with an If. . . then,. . . statement

Hypothesis Practice 1. Will Bounty or Gala absorb more water?
If Bounty and Gala are placed in water, then Bounty will absorb more water. 2. Does flake or chunk shaped cereal absorb more milk? If flake and chunk shaped cereal is placed in milk, then flake shaped will absorb more milk. 3. Will nail polish dry faster under a light or a fan? If nail polish is placed under a light and a fan, then the polish under the light will dry faster.

Which can go faster a motorcycle or a car?
If a motorcycle or a car is driven, then a motorcycle will go faster. Which water evaporates faster salt water or fresh water?

Procedures All steps to do the experiment All steps must be numbered
Include: labeling, brands, types, amounts, units, and sizes Include repeat steps if appropriate Should have at least 3 trials Gathering materials is not part of the procedures Anyone should be able to perform this experiment with the procedures.

Question: Will Bounty or Gala paper towels absorb more water?
Cut one Bounty paper towel into a 20 x 20 cm square Place the paper towel into the square metal cake pan Pour 100 mL of water onto the paper towel in the metal cake pan Let paper towel sit in water for 30 seconds Hold the paper towel by two corners and lift it out of the water Let paper towel drip for 30 seconds Throw paper towel away Pour water left in the metal cake pan into a beaker Determine amount absorbed: subtract amount of water left from 100 mL Record the amount absorbed on the data table Repeat steps 1-10 two more times with Bounty paper towels Repeat steps 1 – 11 with Gala Towels

Procedure Practice 2. Does flake or chunk shaped cereal absorb more milk? 3. Will nail polish dry faster under a light or a fan?

Material Lists 1. List all materials and equipment used in experiment
2. Include: brands, types, amounts, units, and sizes 3. Use only metric measurements

Example Material List Question: Will Bounty or Gala absorb more water?
3 – 20 x 20 cm squares each: Bounty and Gala paper towels 1 pair of scissors 250 mL beaker 600 mL water 20*C x 20 cm sq metal cake pan 1 - Celsius thermometer 1 - Clock with second hand Underline the brands, types, amounts, units, and sizes

Example 3 –squares each: Bounty and Gala paper towels
1 pair of scissors 250 mL beaker 600 mL water 20*C x 20 cm sq metal cake pan 1 - Celsius thermometer 1 - Clock with second hand

Material List Practice
Select the question you wrote procedures for and write a material list 2. Does flake or chunk shaped cereal absorb more milk? 3. Will nail polish dry faster under a light or a fan?

Data Tables 1. Used to collect data from experiment
2. Columns and rows must be labeled 3. May contain a row for a total or average 4. Have a main title = what’s on the graph

Paper Towel Absorbency
Bounty mL Gala mL Trial 1 75 62 Trial 2 80 58 Trial 3 72 60 Total 227 180 Average 76

Graphing Two main types of graphs
BAR: used to compare – data that does not occur in a continuous manner LINE: data that occurs in a continuous manner

Graph Construction Title: short description of data being displayed,
each axis also needs a title Horizontal Axis: independent variable Vertical Axis: dependent variable Spacing: evenly placed across both horizontal and vertical axes

Paper Towel Absorbency
Water Absorbed (mL) Paper Towels

Graph Practice The following data was collected during an experiment with the question: Will chunk or flake cereal absorb more milk? Chunk mL Flake mL Trial 1 25 20 Trial 2 28 17 Trial 3 26 Total 79 57 Average 39.5 30

Graph Practice Will chunk or flack cereal absorb more milk?

Conclusion 1. Examine all of your data: charts and graphs
2. Ask yourself questions??? Were the results expected – how were they different Any problems or occurrences that effected the outcome Did you collect enough data/have enough

Conclusion 3. State what your results were – include data numbers
4. Was your hypothesis supported or refuted 5. Describe any problems or unusual events 6. What should be done differently 7. Revised hypothesis if needed.

Conclusion If chunk and flake cereal are placed in milk, then chunk cereal will absorb more milk. Our group preformed an experiment to find out which type of cereal absorbed more milk. We used chunk and flake cereal and 2% milk to perform the experiment. The experimental results showed us that chunk cereal absorbed 39.5 mL of milk while the flake cereal absorbed 30 mL of milk. This data shows that chunk cereal absorbs more milk than flake therefore, our hypothesis was supported. The experiment proceeded as expected and no problems occurred.